香港海关称，这两宗案件目前仍在调查中◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。(总台记者 周伟琪 金东 )（编辑 许谦）关键词 :香港我要反馈2017年9月22日，中纪委在王三运被“双开”的通报中提到：王三运严重违反政治纪律和政治规矩，“四个意识”淡漠，对党中央重大决策部署消极应付、严重失职失责，丧失政治立场，妄议党中央大政方针，长期搞迷信活动◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。#参考快讯#【外媒：弹劾审判9日启动 #特朗普律师团称国会骚乱是暴民个人所为#】据新加坡《联合早报》网站报道，美国前总统特朗普的弹劾审讯将于当地时间周二（2月9日）在参议院正式启动◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。
MAL是缅甸国防军总司令敏昂莱名字的首字母缩写◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。民盟支持者普遍认为是敏昂莱的个人政治野心导致了这场政变的发生◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。中欧是伙伴不是对手，合作远大于竞争◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。虽然双方社会制度不同、经济模式各异，但这并不妨碍双方开展互利合作◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。中方愿与欧方继续加强对话，深化合作，妥处分歧，推动中欧经贸关系行稳致远◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。希望欧方继续坚持自由贸易和多边主义，与中方共同抵制单边主义和保护主义，促进世界经济尽早复苏◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。
2020年重庆GDP总量仅比位居第四的一线城市广州少16.32亿元，未来重庆GDP总量很有可能超过广州，进入到前四行列◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。16.闫升波，中共党员，栖霞市人大代表，栖霞市政府党组成员、副市长，栖霞市公安局党委书记、局长◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。建议给予其撤销党内职务、政务撤职处分◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。针对台当局领导人的谈话，国台办发言人马晓光重申应回到“九二共识”的共同政治基础上来◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。
An.: How these people survived the flood still remains a puzzle.7.我们应当引进更多的外教这个建议将在会议上讨论◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。此次展览展出40多位香港收藏家收藏的珍品◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。书画展品涵盖明清时期乃至近代新中国名家的作品，还有香港早期水墨画家的代表作品◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。中国文物类别则包括宋元青瓷和白瓷、明清的青花瓷器及多彩瓷器，以及剔雕漆器、玉器、竹雕、明式家具和鼻烟壶，以及反映近代外贸历史变迁的外销艺术◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。英语本科段自学考试英汉翻译教程 Unit 1 Unit 1 Stories Lesson1 (English-Chinese) Bilingual Reading（对照阅读） The Quest Taking the train, the two friends arrived in Berlin in late October 1922, and went directly to the address of Chou En-lai. Would this man receive them as fellow countrymen, o would he treat them with cold suspicion and question them catiously about their past careers as militarists? Chu The remembered his age. He was thirty-six; his youth had passed like a screaming eagle, leaving him old and disillusioned. When Chou En-lai’s door opened they saw a slender man of more than average height with gleaming eyes and a face so striking that it bordered on the beautiful. Yet it was a manly face, serious and intelligent, and Chu judged him to be in his middle twenties. Chou was a quiet and thoughtful man, even a little shy as he welcomed his visitors, urged them to be seated and to tell how he could help them. Ignoring the chair offered him, Chu The stood squarely before this youth more than ten years his junior and in a level voice told him who he was, what he had done in the past, how he had fled from Yunnan, talked with Sun Yat-sen, been repulsed by Chen Tu-hsiu in Shanghai, and had come to Europe to find a new way of life for himself and a new revolutionary road for China. He wanted to join the Chinese Communist Party group in Berlin, he would study and work hard, he would do anything he was asked to do but return to his old life, which had turned to ashes beneath his feet. As he talked Chou En-lai stories, Chou smiled a little, said he would help them find rooms, and arrange for them to join the Berlin Communist group as candidates until their application had been sent to China and an answer received. When the reply came a few months later they were enrolled as full members, but Chu’s membership was kept a secret from outsiders. （from Agnes Smedley, The Great Road） 译文： 探索 他们两个人坐火车于一九二二年十月到达柏林， 立即去周恩来的住处◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 这个人会不会 像 同胞手足一样接待他们呢？会不会疑虑重重， 详细询问他们在军阀时代的经历呢？朱德想 起自己的年龄，他已三十六岁，青春像一路鸣叫的鹰，早已一闪而逝，留给他的是衰老和幻 灭◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 周恩来的房门打开时， 他们看到的是一个身材瘦长、 比普通人略高一点的人， 两眼闪 着 光辉，面貌很引人注意，称得上清秀◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。可是，那是个男子汉的面庞，严肃而聪颖，朱德看 他 大概是二十五六岁的年龄◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 周恩来举止优雅，待人体贴，在招呼他们坐下，询问有何见教 的时候，甚至还有些腼 腆◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 朱德顾不得拉过来的椅子，端端正正地站在这个经他年轻十岁 的青年面前， 用平衡的 语调， 说明自己的身份和经历： 他怎样逃出云南， 怎样会见孙中山， 怎样在上海被陈独秀拒 绝， 怎样为了寻求自己的新的生活方式和中国的新的革命道路而来 到欧洲◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 他要求加入中国 共产党在柏林的党组织， 他一定会努力学习和工作， 只要不再 回到旧的生活里去——它已经 在他的脚底下化为尘埃了——派他做什么工作都行◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 他娓娓 而谈，周恩来就站在他面前，习惯地侧着头，一直听到朱德把话说完，才提出问题◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。两位来客把经历说完后， 周恩来微笑着说， 他可以帮他们找到住的地方， 替他们办理 加 入党在柏林的支部的手续， 在入党申请书寄往中国而尚未批准之前， 暂作候补党员◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 过了 几 个月，回信来了，两人都被吸收为正式党员，但朱德的党籍对外界保持秘密◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 （选自梅念 译《伟大的道路》 ） Lesson 2(E—C) The story of my life (Ecerpt1) Heln Keller The most important day I remember in all my life is the one on which my teacher, Anne Mansfield Sullivan, came to me. I am filled with wonder when I consider the immeasurable contrast between the two lives which it connects. It was the third of March, 1887, three months before I was seven years old. On the afternoon of that eventful day, I stood on the porch, dumb, expectant. I guessed vaguely from my moth’s signs and from the hurrying to and fro in the house that something unusual was about to happen, so I went to the door and waited on the steps. The afternoon sun penetrated the mass of honeysuckle that covered the porch, and fell on my upturned face. My fingers lingered almost unconsciously on the familiar leaves and blossoms which had just come forth to greet the sweet southern spring. I did not know what the future held of marvel or surprise for me. Anger and bitterness had preyed upon me continually for weeks and a deep languor had succeeded this passionate struggle. Have you ever been at sea in a dense fog, when it seemed as if a tangible white darkness shut you in, and the great ship, tense and anxious, groped her way toward the shore with plummet and sounding-line, groped her way toward the shore with plummet and sounding-line and you waited with beating heart for something to happen? I was like that ship before my education began, only I was without compass or sounding-line, and had no way of knowing how near the harbor was. “Light! Give me light!” was the wordless cry of my soul, and the light of love shone on me in that very hour. (From Helen Keller, the Story of My Life) 我的生活（摘录） 海伦·凯勒 在我的记忆里， 安妮· 曼斯菲尔德· 沙利文老师来的那一天， 是我一生中最重要的日 子◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 从这一天开始，我的生活和以前迥然不同，一想到这一点，我就感到非常兴奋◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。这个重 要 的日子是 1887 年 3 月 3 日，我差三个月不满七周岁◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 那天下午，我一声不响，怀着期 待的心情站在门廊里◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。母亲人我打着手势，人们在屋 里匆匆地走来走去，我模模糊糊地预 感到一件不寻常的事就要发生了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。于是我就走到门口， 站在台阶上等着◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 午后的阳光透过 门廊上覆盖着的厚厚的一层忍冬， 照在我微微仰着的脸上◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我几乎是无意识地用手抚摸着 我所熟悉的叶片和花朵， 这新长的叶片和刚开的花朵在南方迎 来了芬芳的春天◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 但不知今 后等待着我的是什么，会使我欣喜，还是惊骇◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。几个星期以来， 我又气又恨，感到非常苦 恼，这种感情上的激烈斗争过去之后，我感到浑身无力◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 不知你是否有过这样的经历—— 在少上航行遇上了大雾，周围一片白，好像着实把你 关在一个黑暗的地方，大船上的人又 紧张又着急，一面用铅锤探测深浅，一面向岸边慢慢驶去，你的心也怦怦直跳，生怕出事◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我在开始受教育之前， 就像这样一条船，只是没有罗盘，没有测深绳，也无法知道离海港 有多远◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 “光明♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜！给我光明♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜！ ”这就是发自我内心深处的无言 的呼唤，也就在这时候， 爱心的光芒照到我的身上◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 Lesson 3(C—E) 我和文学（摘录） 巴金 前两天有一位日本作家问我你怎么同时喜欢各种流派的作家和作品呢？我说，我不是 文学家，不属于任何派别，所以我不受限制◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。那位朋友又问， “你明明写了那许多作品， 你怎么说不是文学家？”我说，唯其不是文学家，我就不受文学规律的限制，我也不怕别人 把我赶出文学界◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我的敌人是什么呢？我说过： “一切旧的传统观念，一切阻止社会进步和人性发展的不合理的制度，一切摧残爱的努力，它们都是我最大的敌人◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 ”我所有的作品 都是写来控诉、揭露、攻击这些敌人的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 从一九二九年到一九四八年这二十年中间， 我写得快， 也写得多◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我觉得有一根鞭子 在 抽打我的心，又觉得仿佛有什么鬼魂借我的笔为自己伸冤一样◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我常常同主人公一起哭笑， 又常常绝望地乱搔头发◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我说我写作如同在生活， 又说作品的最高境界是写作同生活的一致， 是作家同人的一致，主要的意思是不说谎◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我最近还在另一个地方说过：艺术的最高境界 是无技巧◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我几十年前同一位朋友辩论时就说过： 长得好看的人用不着浓妆艳抹， 而我的文章就像 一个丑八怪，不打扮，看起来倒还顺眼些◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。他说： “流传久远的作品是靠文学技巧流传， 谁会关心百十年前的生活？”我不同意， 我认为打动人心的还是作品中反映的生活和主人 公的命运◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 这仍然是在反对那些无中生有、混淆黑白的花言巧语◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我最恨那些盗名欺世、 欺骗读者的谎言◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 译文： My life and Literature (An Excerpt) Ba Jin A few days age, a Japanese author asked me how I was able to appreciate authors and books of so many different schools. I replied, “I am not a ‘man of letters’, nor do I belong to any particular school. Thus I am not restricted in any way.” Then he asked me, “You’ve written many, many books. How can you say you’re not a man of letters?” I replied, “As long as I’m not a man of letters, I’m not subject to any of the rules of literature. Nor do I have to be afraid of being thrown out of any literary circles.” What are my enemies? “All outmoded traditional thinking; any irrational system which obstructs social progress or human development; any force which tramples on love-all these things are my enemies.” All my books were written with the express purpose of denouncing, exposing and striking out at these enemies of mine. In the twenty years between 1929 and 1948, I wrote very quickly and wrote a great deal. I felt as if my mind was being whipped, as if a ghost had commandeered my pen and was writing to redress the injustices it had suffered. I both cried and laughed along with my principal characters, and often despondently scratched my head. When I say that I write like I live, and that the highest ideal a work of literature can attain is to be at one with life, and that an author should be able to identify with his riders, I basically mean that books and their authors should never tell lies. I’ve also said recently on another occasion that the highest state to which art can attain is artlessness. When I was arguing this point with a friend several decades ago, I said, “Physically attractive people don’t need heavy make-up. Though my writing resembles an ugly monster, it actually looks a little better without any embellishment.” His reply was, “Literary works have stood the test of time because of the skill with which they were written. Who today really cares about the details of what life was like a hundred years ago?” I disagree. Readers are moved by the life reflected in a story and the fate of the chief characters. This means I oppose fabrication, deception and flowery language. What I hate most are those glory-seeking writers who deceive the public with their lies. (Translated by Don J.Cohn)Unit2 History.doc Unit2 History Lesson 4 (E—C) England before the Industrial Revolution The country was a place where men worked from dawn to dark, and the laborer lived not in the sun, but in poverty and darkness. What aids there were to lighten labour were immemorial, like the mill, which was already ancient in Chaucer’s time. The Industrial Revolution began with such machines; the millwrights were theengineers of the coming age. James Brindley of Staffordshire started his self-made career in 1733 by working at mill wheels, at the age of seventeen, having been born poor in an illage. Brindley’s improvements were practical: to sharpen and step up the performance of the water wheel as a machine. It was the first multi-purpose machine for the new industries. Brindley worked, for example, to improve the grinding of flints, which were used in the rising pottery industry. Yet there was a bigger movement in the air by 1750. Water had become the engineers’ element, and men like Brindley were possessed by it. Water was gushing and fanning out all over the countryside. It was not simply a source of power; it was a new wave of movement. James brindley was a pioneer in the art of building canals or, as it was then called, ‘navigation’. Brindley had begun on his own account, out of interest, to survey the waterways that he travelled as he went about his engineering projects for mills and mines. The Duke of Bridgewater then got him to build a canal to carry coal from the Duke’s pits at Worsley to the rising town of Manchester…. Brindley went on to connect Manchester with Liverpool in an even bolder manner, and in all laid out almost four hundred miles of canals in a network all over England. Two things are outstanding in the creation of the English system of canals, and they characterise all the Industrial Revolution. One is that the men who made the revolution were practical men. Like Brindley, they often had little education, and in fact school education as it then was could only dull an inventive mind. The grammar schools legally could only teach the classical subjects for which they had been founded. The universities also (there were only two, at Oxford and Cambridge) took little interest in modern or scientific studies; and they were closed to those who did not conform to the Church of England. The other outstanding feature is that the new inventions were for everyday use. The canals were arteries of communication: They were not made to carry pleasure boat, but barges. And the barges were not made to carry luxuries, but pots and pans and bales of cloth, boxes of ribbon, and all the common things that people buy by the pennyworth. These things had been manufactured in villages which were growing into towns now, away from London; it was a country-wide trade. (From J. Bronowski, The Ascent of Man) 译文： 工业革命前的英国在农村，人们从早到晚都得干活，劳动者并不是沐浴在阳 光下，而是生活在贫困和黑暗中，那些帮助减轻劳动的机械都不知从哪个年代起就有了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。比 如磨坊、在乔叟的时代就已经是古老的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。而工业革命就是从这些机械开始的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。修造磨坊的匠 人就是开创新时代的工程师◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。斯塔福郡的詹姆斯·布林德雷，出身于一个贫苦的农村家庭♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜； 一七三三年，他十七岁,就着手改良磨坊的车轮，从而开始了他那自我奋斗的生涯◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 布林德 雷所作的改良是很实际的： 改善并加强水车的机械功能◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 这是为新工业提供的第一部多功能 机器◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。例如，布林德雷努力改进燧石的碾磨过程，燧石是新兴的陶瓷工业有用的材料◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 然 而， 到了一七五 O 年， 一场更大的运动已经在酝酿之中◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 水成了工程师们大显身手的对象， 像布林德雷这样的人对它都着了迷◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。水在农村到处涌流漫溢◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。它不仅是一处能源，而且带来 了一场新的运动◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。布林德雷是开凿运河的先驱者，当时人们把开凿运河叫作航海. 布林德雷 在为他的磨坊和矿井建筑工程到处奔走的时候， 出于自愿和兴趣， 对沿途经过的河道进行勘 察◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 于是布里奇瓦特公爵就让他开一条运河， 以便把煤从公爵在乌斯利拥有的矿井运往 新兴城市曼彻斯特??布林德雷还更加大胆地用运河把曼彻斯特同利物浦联结起来， 修凿了 总长为四百英里的遍布全英国的运河网◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 在修建英国的运河网的过程中，有两点是非常突 出的，而这两点也正是整个工业革命的特点◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。首先，发动这场革命的都是些实干家◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。同布林 德雷一样，他们一般都没有受过什么教育◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。事实上，当时那种学校教育也只能窒息人的创造 性◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。按规定文法学校只能讲授古典学科，这些学校的办学宗旨本来就是如此◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。大学（当时只有两所，一所在牛津，一所在剑桥） 对现代的或科学的学科也不怎么感兴趣♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜；这两所大学 还把不信奉英国国教的人关注在门外◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 第二个突出的特点是：新发明都是为日常生活服务 的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。运河是交通的动脉，开运河不是为了走游艇， 而是为了通行驳船◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 而驳船也不是为了 运送奢侈品， 而是为了运送瓦罐铁锅、 成包的棉布、成箱的缎带，以及那些只花个把便士 全能能买到的各式日用品◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 这些物品都是在远离伦敦渐渐发展成为城镇的农村制造的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 这是 一场全国范围的贸易◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 （吴千之译）Lesson5(E—C) Opportunities Open in the West The first great rush of population to the far west was drawn to the mountainous regions, where gold was found in California in 1848, in Colorado and Nevada 10 years later, in Montana and Wyoming in the 1860s, and in the Black Hills of the Dakota country in the 1870s. Miners opened up the country, established communities, and laid the foundations for more permanent settlements. Yet even while digging in the hills, some settlers perceived the region’s farming and stock-raising possibilities. Eventually, though a few communities continued to be devoted almost exclusively to mining, the real wealth of Montana, Colorado, Wyoming, Idaho, and California proved to be in the grass and soil. Cattle-raising, long an important industry in Texas, became even more flourishing after the war, when enterprising men began to drive their Texas longhorns north across the open public domain. Feeding as they went, the cattle arrived at railway shipping points in Kansas, larger and fatter than when they started. Soon this “long drive” became a regular event, and, for hundreds of kilometers, trails were dotted with herds of cattle moving northward. Cattle-raising spread into the trans-Missouri region, and immense ranches appeared in Colorado, Wyoming, Kansas, Nebraska, and the Dakota Territory. Western cities flourished as centers for the slaughter and dressing of meat. Altogether, between 1866 and 1888, some six million head of cattle were driven up from Texas to winter on the high plains of Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana. The cattle boom reached its height by 1885, and then the range became too heavily pastured to support the long drive, and was beginning to be criss-crossed by railroads. Not far behind the rancher creaked the prairie schooners of the farmers bringing their families, their draft horses, cowsm and pigs. Under the Homestead Act they staked their claims and fenced them with barbed wire. Ranchmen were ousted from lands they had roamed without legal title. Soon the romantic “wild west” had ceased to be. (From An Outline of American History) Lesson 6(C—E) 新民主主义论（摘录） 五四运动是反帝国主义的运动，又是反封建的运动◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。五四运动的杰出的历史意义，在 于它带着为辛亥革命还不曾有的姿态， 这就是彻底地不妥协地反帝国主义和彻底地不妥协的 反封建主义◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。五四运动所以具有这种地，是在当时中国的资本主义经济已有进一步的发展， 当时中国的革命知识分子眼见得俄、德、奥三大帝国主义国家已经瓦解，英、法两大帝国主 义国家已经受伤，而俄国无产阶级已经建立了社会主义国家，德、奥（匈牙利） 、意一国无 产阶级在革命中， 因而发生了中国民族解放的新希望◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 五四运动是在当时世界革命号召之 下，是在俄国革命号召之下，是在列宁号召之下发生的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。五四运动是当时无产阶级世界革命 的一部分◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 五四运动时期虽然还没有中国共产党， 但是有了大批的造成俄国革命的具有初 步共产主义思想的知识分子◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。五四运动，在其开始，是共产主义的知识分子、革命的小资产 阶级知识分子和资产阶级知识分子 （他们是当时运动中的右翼） 三部分人的统一战线的革命运动◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。它的弱点，就在只限于知识分子，没有工人农民参加◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。但发展到六三运动时，就不但 是知识分子，而且有广大的无产阶级、小资产阶级和资产阶级参加，成了全国范围的革命运 动了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 五四运动所进行的文化革命则是彻底地反对封建文化的运动，自有中国历史以来，还 没有过这样伟大而彻底的文化革命◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 当时以反对旧道德提倡新道德， 反对旧文学提倡新文学， 为文化革命的两大旗帜，立下了伟大的功劳◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。这个文化运动，当时还没有可能普及到工农群 众中去◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。它提出了“平民文学”口号，但是当时的所谓“平民” ，实际上还只能限于城市小 资产阶级和资产阶级的知识分子， 即所谓市民阶级的知识分子◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 五四运动是在思想上和干部 上准备了一九二一年中国共产党的成立， 又准备了五卅运动和北伐战争◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 当时的资产阶级知 识分子，是五四运动的右翼，到了第二个时期，他们中国的大部分就和敌人妥协，站在反动 方面了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 （选自《毛泽东选集》第二卷） 译文： On New Democarcy (An Ecerpt) The May 4th Movement was an anti-imperialist as well as an anti-feudal movement. Its outstanding historical significance is to be seen in a future which was absent from the Revolution of 1911, namely, its thorough and uncompromising opposition to imperialism as well as to feudalism. The May 4th Movement possessed this quality because capitalism had developed a step further in China nation as China’s revolutionary intellectuals saw the collapse of three great imperialist powers, Russia, Germany and Austria-Hungary, and the weakening of two others, Britain and France, while the Russian proletariat had established a socialist state and the German, Hungarian and Italian proletariat had risen in revolution. The May 4th Movement came into being at the call of the world revolution, of the Russian Revolution and of Lenin. It was part of the world proletarian revolution of the time. Although the Communist Party of China had not yet come into existence, there were already large numbers of intellectuals who approved of the Russian Revolution and had the rudiments of communist ideology. In the beginning the May 4th Movement was the revolutionary movement of a united front of three sections of people –communist intellectuals, revolutionary petty-bour-geois intellectuals and bourgois intellectuals (the last forming the right wing of the movement). Its shortcoming was that it was confined to the intellectuals and that the workers and peasants did not join in. But as soon as it developed into the June 3rd Movement, not only the intellectuals but the mass of the proletariat, the petty bourgeoisie and the bourgeoisie joined in, and it became a nation-wide revolutionary movement. The Cultural Revolution ushered in by the May 4th Movement was uncompromising in its opposition to feudal culture; there had never been such a great and thoroughgoing cultural revolution since the dawn of Chinese history. Raising aloft the two great banners of the day, “Down with the old ethics and up with the new!” and “Down with the old literature and up with the new!”, the cultural revolution had great achievements to its credit. At that time it was not yet possible for this cultural movement to become widely diffused among the workers and peasants. The solgan of “Literature for the common people” was advanced, but in fact the “common people” then could only refer to the petty-bourgeois and bourgeois intellectuals in the cities, that is , the urban intelligentsia. Both in ideology and in the matter of cadres, the May 4th Movement paved the way for the founding of the Chinese Communist Party in 1921 and for the May 30th Movement, mostly compromised with the enemy in the second period and went over to the side of reaction. (from Selected Works of Mao Tsetung, Vo1.II)Unit 3 Geography.doc Unit 3 Geography Lesson 7 (E—C)Journey up the Nile (Excerpt 1) Robert Caputo Egypt, wrote the Greek historian Hcataeus, is the gift of the Nile. No other country is so dependent on a single lifeline. Egypt’s very soil was born in the Nile’s annual flood; with the flood came the life-giving mud that made egypt the grannary of the ancient world. And as rain fell in the Ethiopian highlands and the snows melted in the Mountains of the Moon, the river was everlastingly renewed. “This is the best place on earth,” said Ahmed, an Egyptian fellah, or farmer, I encountered in the Nile Delta, that incredibly fertile 8,500-square-mile triangle between Cairo and the Mediter-ranean coast. The delta and the narrow Nile Valley to the south make up only 3 percent of Egypt’s land but are home to 96 percent of her population. Here nearly 48million people live in an area only slightly larger than Maryland. The rest of Egypt is desert. “Truly Allah has blessed us,” Ahmed exclaimed piously. “soil, water, sun—we can grow anything!” In the gathering dusk Ahmed and his five compamons had invited me to join them. Their galabias and turbans stained by the sweat and dirt of a long day’s work, they sat in front of a wayside shop, enjoying three of the best things in life along the Nile—tea, conversation,and the water pipe. At the edge of a nearby cancal, donkeys laden with freshly harveste alfalfa waited for their master to lead them home, braying a fretful counterpoint to the steady thud of an irrigation pump. All this suggested ancient harmonies. Yet the Nile has been changed by modern man in ways not yet fully understood. In 1971 engineers and workers completed the Aswan High Dam, nearly 600miles upriver from Cairo toward the Sudanese frontier. It is the greatest public work to be undertaken in Egypt since the pyramids. The devastating floods and droughts that imposed a recurrent ta of suffering on the fellahin no longer occur. Egyptian agriculture has been transformed, and industry is benefiting from power generated by the dam. But there have been negative effects also. Standing on a sandy beach at the mouth of the Rosetta branch of the Nile, I was puzzled by what seemed a ghost town—a sad vista of crumbling buildings, smashed windows, and broken wires dangling from utility poles. One house teetered drunkenly, half in, half out of the sea. “last summer, people stayed in those rooms—this was s summer resort,” said a voice behind me .the speaker was a young Egyptian named Muhammad, member of a team from Aleandria that had come to this abandoned village to study coastal erosion. “Now the sea is moving in,” Muhammad said. He pointed to a lighthouse perched on a tiny island a couple of miles offshore: “That lighthouse used to be on land. About six years ago it became an island. Day by day the sea is eating the land—the dam has stopped the sediment of the Nile from replenishing the shoreline.” As we chatted, a brightly paintd sardine boat dropped anchor. The captain came ashore and joined our conversation. “Before they started the High Dam 25 years ago,” he said, “the Nile mud had a lot of food in it, and so the sardines gathered near the mouth of the river to feed. Now there is no mud, and no food for the fish—they’ve left us.” “If all this can happen in 25 years, what will happen after 50 years, or 100 or 200?” asked Muhammad.(from National Geographic Magazine) 译文： 沿尼罗河而上（摘录 1） 罗伯特·卡普托 希腊历史学家赫卡泰奥斯写道：埃及是民罗河送来的礼物◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。在任何别 的国家都不像埃及这样依赖着唯一的一条生命线◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 就连埃及的土地也是尼罗河每年泛滥而 带来的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 河水泛滥 带来了泥沙，万物得以生长，埃及就这样成了古代世界的粮仓◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。埃塞俄 比亚高原上的雨水， 和月亮上融化的积雪，为尼罗河提供了无穷无尽的水源◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 “这是世界 上最好的地方， ”阿赫赫迈德对我说◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。他是我在尼罗河三角洲遇见的一位农 民（当地人管 农民叫 “夫埃拉”从开罗到地中海之间这块八千五百平方英里的三角地带，土地异常肥沃◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 ◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 ） 三角洲和南边狭窄的尼罗河河谷只占埃及土地的百分之三， 却有百分之九十六的人口住在这里◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 将近四千八百万人生活在这块地方只经美国马里兰州略大一点◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 埃及其 余的地方 全是沙漠◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 “真主可真是保佑我们哪， ”阿赫迈德虔诚地说道◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 “我们有土地，有水， 有阳光—— 种什么都行啊♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜！ ” 天色渐渐暗了下来，阿赫迈德和五个一起干活的人早就约 我去和他们玩儿◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。他们干了 一天活儿，袍子和头巾上又是汗，又是土◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。这时候，他们坐在 路旁一家商店门口，享受尼罗 河沿岸人们生活里的三件最大的乐事——喝茶、聊天、抽水 烟◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。在附近一条水渠旁，驴子背 上驮着刚割的苜蓿，等着主人牵它们回家去，一面发出一 阵阵急促的叫声， 和浇地的水泵不 断发出的突突声交织在一起◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 这一切使人感到古代的和 谐气氛◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。然而现代的人却使尼罗河发生了变化，不过就连他 们自己也不屯解尼罗河空间发 生了什么变化◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。1971 年，技术人员和工人建成了阿斯旺高坝◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 这座水坝在从开罗沿尼罗河 向苏丹边境走去将近六百英里远的地方◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 这是埃及自从修建金字 塔以来进行的一项最大的 公共工程◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 过去给农民带来了灾难的水旱灾害， 现在不再发生了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 埃及的农业得到了改造， 工业也用上了水坝发出的电力◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 但是也有不良的后果◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。洛塞塔河是尼罗河入海处的一个支 流， 我站在河口的沙滩上看 到一个小镇， 感到迷惑不解◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 这仿佛是一个被人遗弃了的小镇， 一片萧索景象，房子濒于倒 塌，窗户破碎，断了的电一挂在电线杆子上◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。有一所房子好像 喝醉了的人一样摇摇晃晃，一 半泡在海里，一半在陆地上◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 “去年夏天，那所房子还有人 住过◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。这是一个避暑胜地◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 “在我身后有人这样说道◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。说 话的是一位埃及青年，名叫穆罕 默德，他是一个考察队的队员，是专门从亚历山大港到这个 荒芜的村庄来考察沿少地区水 土流失的情况的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 “海水越来越往里边来， ”穆罕默德说道◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。他 指着座落在离海岸二三 英里的小岛上的一座灯塔说： “那座灯塔本来是在陆地上的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。大约六 年前， 那地方变成 了一个小岛◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 海水一天天冲刷陆地——水坝已经使得民罗河的泥沙无法沉 积下来加固海岸 了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我们正在聊着， 只见一条颜色鲜艳的捕捞沙丁鱼的船抛了锚◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 船长上了岸， 凑过来和 我 们说话◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 他说：“二十五年前修建高坝之前， 尼罗河的泥沙里面有很多可吃的东西， 所以 沙 丁鱼就聚集在河口找食吃◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。现在泥沙没有了，鱼没有可吃的了，也就不来了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 ” “如果说 二十五年就发生这么多变化，五十年、一百年、二百年之后又会怎么样呢？” 穆罕默德问 道◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 （摘译自《全国地理杂志》 ）Lesson 8 (E—C) Adelaide Adelaide, capital of the state of South Australia. Situated at the base of the Mt.Lofty Ranges, 9 mi(14km) inland from the centre of the east shore of the Gulf St. Vincent, it enjoys a Mediterranean climate with hot summers (February mean temperature 74℉〔23℃〕)， cool winters(July mean 54℉〔12℃〕), and an average annual rainfall of 21 in (530mm). The site, chosen(1836) by Charles Sturt and William Light (the colony’s first surveyor general), is on slightly rising ground along the Torresn River, which divides it into a southern business district and a northern residential section. The city is separated from its suburbs by extensive areas of park lands. Named for Queen Adelaide, consort of the British King William IV, it was incorporated as Australia’s first municipal government in 1840 and became a city in 1919, when in gained a lord mayoralty. The fertility of the surrounding plains, asy access to the Murray lowlands to the east and southeast, and the presence of mineral deposits in the nearby hills all contributed to the city’s growth. As an early agricultural marketing centre, it handled wheat, wool, fruits, and wine. Adelaide, added by its central position and a ready supply of raw material, has since become industrialized, with factories producing automobile components, machinery, tetiles, and ries producing automobile components, machinery, textiles, and chemicals. A focus of rail, sea, air, and road transportation, it receives the bulk of the products of the lower Murray River Valley, which has no port at its mouth. Adelaide’s own harbour facilities are at Port Adelaide(q.v.), 7 mi(11km) northwest. Notable city landmarks include the university (founded in 1874), Parliament and Government houses, the Natural History Museum, and two cathedrals—St.Peter’s Anglican) and St.Francis avier’s(Roman Catholic). The adelaide Festival of Arts(1960)was the first international celebration of its kind to be held in Australia. Pop.(1975 est.)city,15,000; metropolitan area, 899,300. 13 34°55’s,138°35’E (from Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed.) 译文： 阿德莱德 阿德莱德 Adelaide 澳大利亚南州首府◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 位于洛夫蒂岭山麓◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 距圣文森特湾 14 公 里◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 属地中海型气候◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。四周平原土壤肥沃，与东和东南方的墨累低地相通◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。曲解 矿藏◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。原 为早 期农贸中心，现已工业化◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。生产汽车部件、机器、纺织品和化工品◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。1962 年在市南的 哈勒 特科夫建炼油厂◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。有输油管道直通吉吉尔帕天然气田◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。铁路、海运、航空和公路交通 枢纽◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 名胜古迹有自然博物馆、 英国圣公会圣彼得大教堂和罗马天主教圣费朗西斯· 查 威尔大教堂◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 阿德莱德文艺节（1960）每两年举行一次，是在澳大利亚举办的第一个国际 性文艺活动◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。人 口：市 1.5 万♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜；都市区 899，300（1975） ◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 (选自《简明不列颠百科全 书》第 1 卷)Lesson 9 (C—E) The Imperial Palace The Imperial Palace Built in the early fifteenth century(1406-1420 A.D.), it is also called the Palace Museum or the Old Palace. As you pass through Tian An Men Gate you will enter a walled courtyard. Although you cannot see them, on either side of this courtyard are many gardens and halls. Of particular interest if you have time might be the Imperial Ancestral Temple, which is to the right, and the Sun Yat-Sen Park, on the left. Covering an area of 175 acres(72 ha.), the Palace is enclosed by walls over 35ft.(10.4m.) high and surrounded by a moat 57 yd.(52m.) wide. Today this moat is still full of water. Four watchtowers are placed, one at each corner. Used as the imperial palace by both the Ming and Qing Dynasties(1368-1911 A.D.), the Imperial Palace is the largest and most complete group of ancient buildings standing in China. The halls and palaces which comprise the Imperial Palace are all built of wood and brick. With a total of over nine thousand rooms, most of the Palace had undergone some reconstruction to repair damage caused by fire and other ravages of time during the long years of its history. Throughout you will find typical masterpieces of ancient Chinese architecture. Two notable examples are the ingeniously constructed watchtowers and the magnificent Hall of Supreme harmony. To further insure the Imperial Palace would be given special protection, in 1961 the Chinese government decreed that the entire area be considered one of China’s “most important historical sites.” The palace Museum, with four gates, has its main entrance to the south, known as the Merdian Gate. This is the gate you will approach as you continue along th cobbled roadway from Tian An Men. The Imperial Palac is divided into two ceremonial areas: the Outer Palace and the Inner Court. Throgh the Meridian Gate and across the Golden Water Bridge, one comes to the Gate of Supreme Harmony, the main gate of the Outer Palace. The main buildings in the Outer Palace are the Hall of supreme Harmony, the Hall of Complete Harmony, and the Hall of Preserving Harmony. (from the Official Guidebook of China) 解说：这是一篇很好的材料，可惜没有找到原文，因此 无法对照◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。Unit 4 Economy.doc Unit 4 Economy Lesson 10 (E—C) A Golbal Econmy President Clinton realized—as all of us must—that today’s economy is global. We live in an era in which information, goods and capital sped around the globe, every hour of every day. Whether we like it or not, all of our fortunes are tied together. We are truly interdependent. America supports international trade because we believe fundamentally that trade will enrich those nations who embrace its discipline. The great promise of trade is its potential to promote mutual prosperity—and to strengthen the bonds between sovereign nations. The U.S. and China both demonstrate the potential of trade to improve the lives of our people. You know better than I the great achievements of the Chinese economy over the past two decades. In 1977, the sum total of Chinese imports and exports was less than $15 billion, putting China’s share of world trade at 0.6 percent. The most populous country in the world, China ranked a distant 30th among exporting nations. By 1993 China’s exports and imports totaled nearly $200 billion. China had become the world’s tenth largest exporter. Since 1978, when China began opening its economy to increased foreign investment and trade, aggregate output has more than doubled. The strongest growth has occurred in the coastal areas near HongKong and opposite Taiwan, where foreign investment and modern production methods have spurred production of both domestic and export goods. Per capita GNP has grown at an average rate of 7.6% from 1980-1992. The numbers are interesting, but how has this affected the people of China? In the last decade, telephone connections rose more than 60%. Electrical production more than doubled to 621 million kilowatt hours. In short, China has improved the economic well-being of its people. The people of the United States also have experienced the benefits of world trade. Since World War II, the U.S. has been the world’s largest economy and, in most years, the world’s largest exporter. But the importance of trade in our economy had exploded in the past three decades. In 1970, the value of two way trade was equal to just 13% of the U.S. economy. Last year, that figure, at 28%, was more than twice as high. In just the last seven years, jobs supported by U.S. exports (goods and services) have risen by 4 million, to a total of 11 million. That’s almost one out of ten American jobs. Last year U.S. trade equaled $1.8 trillion dollars. Nor is the importance of trade likely to diminish for either China or the United States. China will continue to depend upon lucrative export markets to earn the foreign exchange it needs to develop and grow. At the same time, China’s imports will supply the much needed machinery and technology to fuel its continued development. For the United States, new commercial opportunities will grow most rapidly in the emerging markets. We estimate that three quarters of new eport opportunities over the next twenty years that’s an incredible $1.9 trillion in potential exports—will come in the emerging markets of Asia and Latin America. This means jobs for American workers and a higher standard of living for the American people. (Ecerpted form “Remarks by Ambassador Kantor at the University of International Business and Economics”, 1995) 译文： 一个全球性的经济正如每个人必须认识到的那样，克林顿总统认识到当今的经济具 有全球性质◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我们生 活在这样一个时代中，信息、货物和资金每时每刻在世界上流动◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。不 管我们喜欢与否，我们 所有的命运都是相连的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我们真的需要相互依靠◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 美国支持国际贸 易，因为我们确信，贸易会使那些遵守行为准则的国家富裕起来◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。极 其光明的贸易前景是 促进相互繁荣和加强主权国家之间联系的潜在力量◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 美中两国都显示一种能提高两国人民 生活的贸易潜力◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 你们经我更清楚中国经济在过 去 20 年中所取得的伟大成就◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 1977 年， 在 中国进出口总额还不到 150 亿美元，仅占世界贸 易总额的 0.6%，世界上人口最多的中国 在出口国家中排名靠后， 仅是第 30 位◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 1993 年， 中国进出口总额接近 2000 亿美元， 到 它已成为第 10 个最大的出口国◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 自从 1978 年以来，中国经济为日益增加的外国投资和 贸易敞开大门，总产量增加了一 倍多◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。最强劲的增长发生在靠近香港和台湾对面的沿海地 区◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 在这个地区， 外国投资和现代 生产手段的使用促进了国内和出口货物的生产◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 1980 年 至 1992 年， 从 人均国民生产总值平 均增长率为 7.6%◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 看看数字是很有趣的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。然而它 又是怎样影响中国人的呢？在过去 10 年中，电话用户增 加了 60%以上◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。电力生产增加了 一倍多，达到 6.21 亿千瓦小时◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。总之，中国提高了人民的 生活水平◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 美国人民也有利益 于国际贸易的经历◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。自从第二次世界大战以来，美国一直是世界上 最大的经济大国◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。在大 多数年代中，它又是世界上最大的出口国◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 但在过去的 30 年中，我们经济贸易的重要性 大大地增加了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 1970 年， 在 双边贸易的 总值占了整个美国经济的 13%◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 去年上升到 28%， 比 1970 年增加了一倍多◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。就在过去 7 年 中，美国的出口（货物和服务）创造的就业机会 增加了 400 万个，总数上升到 1100 万个◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 这个数字就占美国就业总数的 1/10◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。去年， 美国贸易总额达到了 1.8 万亿美元◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 无论是中国还是美国，都不会缩小贸易的重要性◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。中 国会继续依靠获利的出口市场来 赚取外汇以发展和增长自己的经济◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 同时， 中国可用进 口的机械和技术来加速它继续发展的 速度◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 对于美国来说，在不断涌现的市场上，新的贸易机会将以最快的速度增加◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我们估计 过，在未来的 20 年中，新的出口机会中的 3/4， 即数量可观的 1.9 万亿美元的潜在出口额， 将来自亚洲和拉丁美洲不断出现的市场上◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 这 将意味着为美国工人创造就业机会， 使美国人 民提高生活水平◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 （原文及译文均选自李 正中： 《国际经贸英汉翻译》之附录） Lesson 11 (E—C) China and Britain in the World Economy(Ecerpt) Britain and the World Economy My theme today is the world economy. The future of the world economy is of particular interest to my country because we have such a huge stake in it. Britain lives by commerce. With 2% of the world’s population, we are the world’s fifth largest trading nation. We rely more than any other major economy on the goods and services that we export, the investment that we attract and we make abroad. The strength of our financial services sector is well-known; the world’s leading centre for international bank lending, foreign exchange, aviation and marine insurance, for example. But British exports range far beyond services, important as they are. We eport one quarter of all we produce, more per head than either Japan or the United States. Our place in the flows of global capital is equally central. 27% of all foreign exchange dealing takes place in London. Britain is the world’s third largest outward investor. We ourselves attract more foreign investment that any country but th US; more investment than in the whole Pacific region. The fruits of this two-way flow are substantial. Our overseas investments yield Britain a net income of over ￡10 billion a year. In the last years inward investment in Britain has brought our people more than 250,000 new jobs. What this means is that Britain has direct experience of the benefits that international trade and investment generate. We have a major interest in seeing it flourish. We have a major interest in creating the right climate for that to happen. China in the World Economy What is China’s epanding role in this? China’s vast size and resources, her extraordinary economie progress over recent years, have made her an increasingly important player in the modern international economy. Because of this, because of Britain’s own huge stake in the world economy, we need to take a real interest in China. Since economic reform began in 1978, an average growth rate of almost 10% a year has seen China’s GNP nearly quadruple. The rewards for the people of China are clear, most visibly in the dynamism and prosperity of Peking and the coastal cities. For the nternational community the most striking consequence of these changes is that China has grown to be the world’s eleventh largest economy, and is set to grow further. China’s rapid emergence as a major world actor is a tribute to the drive and entrepreneurial spirit of her people, and more particularly to the fundamental economic reforms she has pursued over the past two decades. It is a clear testimony to the success of the open door policy led by Mr Deng Xiaoping. I warmly welcome those reforms and that success. I would draw a further conclusion, which I believe is central to assessing China’s future place in the world economy. In my view China’s growing international engagement has been vital to her progress. The key to sustaining and building on early conomic success was China’s move intoworld markets. Consider a couple of statistics. Since 1979 foreign trade as a share of China’s GNP has risen form 10% to 45%. Integration in world markets became a basic fact of Chinese economic life. With that came integration into the world investment system. Foreign funds flowed into China in a spectacular way. The stock of foreign investment grew form under $5 billion in 1989 to nearly $90 billion by 1994. So china has built new and increasingly strong links, in both directions, with world markets. These links have contributed to creation of new jobs, new prosperity of China. What next? I believe it is China’sinterest to build on this foundation, to consolidate her place in the international system. That is the way to maimise her share of world markets; and—as the UK knows from direct experience—to attract the stimulus, the technology and the funding that inward investment can offer. (Excerpted from “Speech by the Hon Malcolm Rifkind, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs at the University of International Business and Economics, 1996) 译文： 中国与英国在世界经济中的作用（摘录） 英国与世界经济 我今天演讲的主题是世界经济◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 世界经济的未来与我国休戚相关， 所 以我们格外关注◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。英国的依赖贸易◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。虽然英国人 口只占全球的 2%，它却是世界和五大贸 易国◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 英国对商品和服务出口以及对投资和引资的 依赖超过了世界上其他主要经济体◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我 们的金融服务业以实力雄厚而着称，我们是国际银行借贷、外汇以及航空和海事保 险业的 中心◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。服务业在英国的出口中占重要地位，但英国的出口绝不仅限于服务业◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我们四 分之 一的产品供出口， 人均出口量高于美国和日本◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我们在全球资本流动方面也居中心地位◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 全球外汇交易的 27%在伦敦进行◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。英国是世界上第三大对外投资者，同时我们所吸引的外 资额仅次于美国，居世界第二，而美国在英投资高于其在整个太平洋地区的投资总和◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。这种 双向资金流动使我们受益颇丰◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。每年英国的海外投资为我们带来 100 亿英镑的净收入，而 过 去五年中外国对英投资为我国人民创造了 25 万个就业机会◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。这意味着英国直接享受到 了国 际投资所带来的利益◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 国际投资的蓬勃发展符合我国利益， 我们非常愿意为此创造 一个良好 的环境◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 世界经济中的中国 在世界经济中，中国将在哪些方面发挥日益重要的 作用呢？ 中国地大物博，近年来经济迅猛发展，这使得中国在现代国际经济中成为一支越 来越 重要的力量◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 中国在现代国际经济中的地位以及我国在世界经济中的巨大利益使得我 们需要 密切关注中国◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 自 1978 年经济改革以来， 中国经济以年均近 10%的速度增长， ， 使其国民生产生产几 乎翻了两番◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 中国人民获得了实惠有目共睹◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 北京和沿海城市的繁 荣和盎然生机便是最明显 的见证◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 对国际社会来说， 这些变化带来的最引人注目的结果是 中国已跃居为世界第十一经济 大国，而且今后定会更强◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 中国迅速崛起，成为世界上发挥 重要作用的国家，这应归功于中国人民的努力和进取 精神，尤其是过去 20 年里中国所进 行的根本性的经济改革◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 这无疑证明了邓小平先生倡导 的开放政策是成功的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我对这些改 革及其成功表示热烈欢迎◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我还有一个想法，我认为我的这一想法对于任何估价中国今后 在世界经济中的地位是 至关重要的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我认为，中国日益扩大的国际接触对其进步一直是至 关重要的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 中国能够在已 取得的经济成功的基础上进一步发展， 关键是它进入了世界市场◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 让我们看几个统计数字◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 1979 年以来， 外贸占中国国民生产总值的比重从 10%上升到 45%◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 融入世界市场已成为中国经济生活的一个基本事实◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 继之而来的是融入世界投资体系◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。外 国资金大量流入中国， 外资存量从 1989 年的 50 亿美元上升到 1994 年的近 900 亿美元◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 总之，中国与世界市场之间建立起了双向的、新的联系，这些联系正在日益加强，并 为中 国创造了新的就业机会，带来了新的繁荣◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。那么今后怎么办呢？ 我相信，在此基础上进一 步努力并巩固中国在国际体系中的地位符合中国的利益，也 是最大限度地扩大其在世界上 的市场份额的方法◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 英国从自身直接的经历中体会到， 吸引外 资可以带来动力、技术和 资金◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 （原文及译文均选自李正中： 《国际经贸英汉翻译》之附录） Lesson 12 (C—E) 中国能够依靠自己的力量实现粮食基本自给 （摘录 立足国内资源， 实现粮食基本自给， 是中国解决粮食供需问题的基本方针◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。中国将努 力促进国内的粮食增产，在正常情况下， 粮食自给率不低于 95%， 净进口量不超过国内消 费量的 5%◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 现阶段中国已经实现了粮食 基本自给，在未来的发展过程中，中国依靠自己的力量实 现粮食基本自给，客观上具备诸 多有利因素◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。根据中国农业自然资源、生产条件、技术水平 和其他发展条件，粮食增产潜 力很大◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 ——提高现有耕地单位面积产量有潜力◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。目前，中国同一类型地区粮食单产水平悬殊， 高的每颂 7500—15000 公斤，低的只有 3000—5000 公斤◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。在播种面积相对稳定 的前提下， 只要 1996—2010 年粮食单产年均递增 1%，2011—2030 年年均递增 0.7%， 就可以达到预期 的粮食总产量目标◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。即使考虑到土地报酬率递减的因素，也是有条件实现 的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。目前，中国的 粮食单产水平与世界粮食高产国家相比也是比较低的， 中国要在短时间 内达到粮食高产国家 的水平难度较大，但经过努力是完全可以缩小差距的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。通过改造中低 产田、兴修水利、扩大 灌溉面积、推广先进适用技术等工程和生物措施，可使每公顷产量 提高 1500 公斤以上◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 ——开发后备耕地资源有潜力◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。中国现有宜农荒地 3500 万公顷， 其中可开垦为耕地的 约有 1470 万公顷◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。中国政府将在加强对现有耕地保护的同时，加快 宜农荒地的开发和工矿 废弃地的复垦，未来几十年计划每年开发复垦 30 万公顷以上，以 弥补同期耕地占用，保持 耕地面积长期稳定◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。通过提高复种指数，使粮食作物播种面积稳 定在 1.1 亿公顷左右◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 （摘自《中国的粮食问题》第三部分） 译文： China Can Basically Achieve Self-Sufficiency in Grain Through Self-Reliance The basic principle for solving the problem of grain supply and demand in China is to rely on the domestic resources and basically achieve self-sufficiency in grain. China endeavors to increase its grain production so that its self-sufficiency rate of grain under normal conditions will be above 95 percent and the net import rate 5 percent, or even less, of the total consumption quantity. China has basically achieved self-sufficiency in grain at the present stage, and there are many favorable objective factors for her to maintain such achievement by her own efforts in the course of future development: Natural agricultural resources, production conditions, technical level and some other conditions ensure great potential in this respect. There is potential for increasing the yield per unit area on the existing cultivated land. At present, the per unit area yield of grain varies widely in the same districts, the highest yield being 7,500 kg to 15,000 kg per hectare, and the lowest 3,000 kg to 5,000 kg. Given a relatively stable sown area, China can achieve its desired total grain output target if the annual average increase rate of per unit area yield is one percent from 1996 to 2010 and 0.7 percent from 2011 to 2030. Compared to the annual average increase rate of 3.1 percent of the per unit area yield in the past 46 years, it is clear that one percent and 0.7 percent are fairly low. So, to acheve the target is totally possible even if the factor of diminishing and returns rate is considered. At persent, China’s per unit area yield of grain is low compared with contries with high grain yields. It will be difficult for China to reach the level of countries with high grain production in short period of time, but the gap can certainly be narrowed through earnest efforts. The grain output per hectare can be increased by more than 1,500 kg through the upgrading of medium- and low- yield land, intensifying water-control projects, enlarging irrigated areas and spreading the use of advanced agrotechnology. There is also potential for xploiting untouched arable land resources. China now has 35 million hectares of wasteland which are suitable for farming. Of this, about 14.7 million hectares can be reclaimed. The Chinese government will make efforts to speed up the reclamation of wasteland suitable for farming as well as land discarded by factories and mines, while measures will be adopted to protect the isting cultivated land. In the nest few decades China plans to reclaim more than 300,000 hectares each year to make up for the loss of cultivated land appropriated for non-farming uses and to keep the area of cultivated land constant for a long period of time. The grainsown area will be stabilized at about 110 million ha through the increase of the multiple crop index. (from Beijing Reiew)5Cultur.doc13(E—C) A Valentine to One Who Cared —Too Much(1) By Nancy J. Rigg It’s raining, again. As I lie awake in bed, listening to the sound of those razor-sharp drops pounding on the pavement, my mind goes reeling down dark corridors teeming with agonizing flashbacks, and a chill from within fills me with dread. It’s rainning, again. It does this every year in Southern California; at least that’s what they told me last year when I marveled at the relentless determination of the rain. There seem to be two seasons here. During the rainy season, sometimes the storms drench the area nonstop for days. Sometimes the storm come and go. Often property damage and sirupted livs result. It’s hard to predict the intensity of the patterns from year to year. Then there is the fire season. That takes care of the property that managed to survive the deluge, again disrupting lives. The days connecting thse seasons are monotonous, with some sun, some smog and some more sun. This is nothing like back home in Colorado. We have rains ther, too. Thunderstorms in spring and summer often come with intensity great enough to cause flash-flooding. Every child raised in the West knows about these dangers. At least that’s what I used to think. I’m not so sure anymore. I second grade they showd us a terrifying film about flash-flooding. A man parked his Chevy on a little bridge overlooking a picturesque, arid gully and took out his camera. It was strating to rain, but he really wanted to get that picture. The image of a sudden wall of dark water carrying the man and his car away in an instant is still imprinted on my mind. They used this kind of scare tactic when I was growing up. I wonder what they use today. A yar ago I would have sworn that children here are taught nothing about the dangerous powers of nature. My fiance, Earl higgins, and I had recently moved to Los Angeles from colorado. It was a move we had made by choice, for caeer purposes. About a week and a half after we moved into an apartment in Atwater, a block from the Los Angeles River, the rains started in earnest. On Valentine’s Day, I remember thinking what dismal weather it was for being in love, but after studying Earl’s face I knew that the weather didn’t matter much. At least that’s what I thought. Because we were together, life was safe and secure. We talked of our plans to wed and start a family, once we were settled in Los Angeles, and we listened to the rain. The Sunnynook footbridge connects Atwater with Griffith Park, spanning the Los Angeles River and the Golden State Freeway. Like the freeway, the river is fenced to keep people out. During several walks to the park, Earl and I had noticed many children who ignord the fences and found holes to allow them through in order to play in the dirt in the river bed and run up and down the sloping concrete banks. Most of the time parents probably have no worry about their kids playing in the concrete channel, because most of the time the river is dry. Habits form, however, and, in a child’s mind, most of the time becomes all of the time, and nobody gives it much thought. Then the rains come.(to be continued). (from Los Angeles Times) 译文： 衷肠曲 南希·J.里格 又下雨了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我躺在床上，睡不着， 听着雨点儿落在路面上啪啪作响◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我思绪万千，恍 恍 惚惚进入了一条条幽暗的甬道， 回想起许多痛苦的往事◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 心里一阵冰凉， 不禁感到毛骨悚 然◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 是的，又在下雨了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 加利福尼亚南部，年年如此♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜；去年，雨无情地下个不停，我表示惊异， 人们就是这样 对我说的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。这里似乎只有两个季节◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。在雨季，狂风暴雨有时一连几天不停， 有时一会儿就雨 过天晴◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 结果往往是财产遭损失， 生活受影响◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 严重程度如何， 年年不同， 难以预料◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。再就 是火季◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。大雨过后勉强剩下的财物就落到它的手里，人们的生活再次受到 影响◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。这两个季节 之间的日子是非常单调的，有时见一点阳光，有时烟雾弥漫，过后再见 一点儿阳光◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。这跟家 乡科罗拉多的情况迥然不同◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 科罗拉多也下雨◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。春夏两季雷雨交加， 猛烈异常，往往顷刻之间暴雨成灾◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。在西部长 大的孩子都知道洪水的厉害◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 至少我过去是这样想的， 现在就不敢说了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我上二年级的时候， 给我们演过一场暴雨成灾的电影，非 常可怕◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。电影里有一位先生把他那 b style="color:white;background-color:#990099"5/b7 型车威牌小轿车 停在一座小桥上，小桥下面是一条美丽、干涸的狭谷◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。这位先生拿出相机 准备拍照，却下起 雨来◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。可是他实在想把这里的景色拍下来再走◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。突然混浊的雨水像一面 墙一样压了下来，一 下了就连人带车都冲走了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。这情景直到现在还印在我的脑海里◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我小 的时候， 他们用过这种 吓唬人的办法◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 现在用什么办法， 就不得而知了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 一年前， 我敢说， 从来没有人对这里的孩子讲讲大自然的力量有多么危险◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。那时我和 我的未婚夫艾勒·希金 斯刚从科罗拉多搬到洛杉矶来◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我们是为了事业，自愿搬来的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。搬来 以后就在阿特瓦德区 离洛杉机河一个街区的地方找了一套房子住下◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。住了大约一个多星期， 下起雨来了，而且 下个不停◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 记得在圣瓦伦廷节那一天， 我觉得这样的天气对正在相爱的人 来说可太糟糕了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 可是仔细一看艾勒的脸色，就知道天气不好并没有多大关系◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。至少当时我 是这么想的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。因 为我们俩在一起，生活是安定的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我们打算一旦在洛杉矶站住脚，就结婚， 组织家庭◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我 们一面议论，一面听着外头的雨声◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 桑尼努克桥是一座只供人行的小桥，它横跨洛杉矶河 和金州高速公路，联结着阿特瓦 德区和格力非公园◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。洛杉矶河和公路一样，为了行人的安 全，两旁修了栏杆◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我和艾勒好几 次散步到公园去，都看见许多孩子不管栏杆不栏杆，见 了缺口就钻过去，在河床上的烂尼里 玩，在两岸用水泥砌的斜坡上跑上跑下◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。在大多数情 况下，家长大概可以放心地让孩子们在 两岸砌着水泥的河道里玩耍，因为大部分时间河里 没有水◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。然而孩子们习以为常，在他们心 目中， “大部分时间”就成了“全部时间” ， 而谁也没有仔细去想这件事◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 后来就下起雨来了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 （待续） Lesson 14 (E—C) How to Grow Old By Bertrand Russell In spite of the title, this article will really be on how not to grow old, which, at my time of life, is a nuch more important subject. My first advice would be to choose your ancestors carefully. Although both my parents died young, I have done well in this respect as regards my other ancestors. My maternal grandfather, it is true, was cut off in the flower of his youth at the age of sixty-seven, but my other three grandparents all lived to be over eighty. Of remoter ancestors I can only discover one who did not live to a great age, and he died of a disease which is now rare, namely, having his head cut off. A great-grandmother of mine, who was a friend of Gibbon, lived to the age of ninety-two, and to her last day remained a terror to all her descendants. My maternal grandmother, after having nine children who survived, one who died in infancy, and many miscarriages, as soon as she became a widow devoted herself to women’s higher education. She was one of the founders of Girton College, and worked hard at opening the medical profession to women. She used to relate how she met in Italy an elderly gentleman who was looking very sad. She inquired the cause of his melancholy and he said that he had just parted from his two grandchildren. “Good gracious,” she eclaimed, “I have seventy-two grandchildren, and if I were sad each time I parted from one of them, I should have a dismal eistence!” “Madre snaturale,” he replied. But speaking as one of the seventy-two, I prefer her recipe. After the age of eighty she found she had some difficulty in getting to sleep, so she habitually spent the hours from midnight to 3 a.m. in reading popular science. I do not believe that she ever ha time to notice that she was growing old. This, I think, is the proper recipe for remaining young. If you have wide and keen interests and activities in which you can still be effective, you will have no rason to think about the merely statistical fact of the number of years you have already lived, still less of the probable brevity of your future. As regards health, I have nothing useful to say since I have little expeerience of illness. I eat and drink whatever I lkie, and sleep when I cannot keep awake. I never do anything whatever on the groud that it is good for health, though in actual fact the things I like doing are mostly wholesome.Psychologically there are two dangers to be guarded against in old age. One of these is undue absorption in the past. It does not do to live in memories, in regrets for the good old days, or in sadness about friends who are dead. One’s thoughts must be directed to the future, and to things about which there is something to be done. This is not always easy; one’s own past is a gradually increasing weight. It is easy to think to oneself that one’s emotions used to be more vivid than they are, and one’s mind more keen. If this is true it should be forgotten, and if it is forgotten it will probably not be true. The other thing to be avoided is clinging to youth in the hope of sucking vigour from its vitality. Whe your children are grown up they want to live their own lives, and if you continue to be as interested in them as you were when they were young, you are likely to become a burden to them, unless they are unusually callous. I do not mean that one should be without interest in them, but one’s interest should be contermplative and, if possible, philanthropic, but not unduly emotional. Animals become indifferent to their young as soon as their young can look after themselves, but human beings, owing to the length of infancy, find this difficult. (to be continued) (from Portraits from Memory and Other Essays) 参考译文：怎样才能活得老 题目虽然这样写，实际上本文所要谈的却是怎样才可以不 老◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。对于像我这样年纪的人 来说，这个问题就更是重要得多了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我的头一条忠告是，你可 得要挑选好你的先人啊◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我的 父母年纪轻轻就去世了， 可是说到祖辈， 我还是选得不错的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我外祖父固然是在风华正茂之 年就弃世了，当时他只有六十七岁，但是我的祖父、祖平和 外祖平却都活到了八十以上◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 往锭一点说， 再 在我的先人之中， 我发现只有一位活得不长， 他得了一种现在已不多见的病，那就是 让人砍掉了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我的一位曾祖平，和吉本是朋友，活 到了九十二岁，她直到临终都使 儿孙望而生畏◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我外祖母有九个孩子活了下来，有一个孩 子很小不死了，她还流产过多次◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 丈夫一死，她就致力于女子高等教育◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。她是弋登学际的 创办人之一，曾竭力使医学专业对妇 女开放◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。她常对人说，她在意大利碰到过一位愁容满 面的老先生，就问他为什么闷闷不乐， 他说两个小孙孙刚刚离开他◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 “我的天哪♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜！ ”我 外祖母就说， “我的孙子孙女有七十二个，要 是每离开一个都要难过， 我的生活可就太 痛苦了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 听了这话， ” 老先生竟说， “Madre snaturale” 但是我作为七十二人中的一 员，倒是赞成她的办法的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。她过了八十以后，常睡不着觉，所以 从午夜到凌晨三点总要读 些科普读物◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我相信她从来没有 工夫去注意自己是不是在日益衰 老◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我认为，要想永葆青 春， 这是最好的办法◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 你要是有广泛的爱好和强烈的兴趣， 而且还 有能力参加一些活动， 你 就没有理由去考虑自己已经活了多少岁这样的具体数字， 更没有理 由去考虑自己的余年大 概是很有限的了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 谈到健康问题，我就没有什么可说的了，因为我没有怎么生过病◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我想 吃什么就吃什 么，想喝什么就喝什么，眼睛睁不开了就睡觉，从来不为对身体有益而搞什 么活动，然而实 际上我喜欢做的事大都是有助于增进身体健康的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 从心理方面来说，到了 老年，有两种危险倾向需要注意防止◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。一是过分地怀念过去◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 老想着过去，总觉得过去怎 么好怎么好，或者总是为已故的朋友而忧伤，这是不妥的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。一个 人应当考虑未来，考虑一 些可以有所作为的事情◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。要做到这一点并非总是很容易的♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜；自己过 去的经历就是一个越来 越沉重的包袱◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 人们往往会对自己说， 我过去感情多么丰富， 思想多 么敏锐， 现在不行了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 如果真是这样的话，那就不要去想它，而如果你不去想这，情形就很 可能不是这样了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 另 一件需要避免的事就是才想和年轻人呆在一起，希望从青年的省略中汲取力量◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。孩 子们长 大之后，就希望独立生活，如果你还像在他们年幼时那样关心他们，你就会成为他们 的累 赘，除非他们特别麻木不仁◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我不是说一个人不应当关心孩子，而是说这种关心主要应 该 是多为他们着想，可能的话，给他们一些接济， 而不应该过分地动感情◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 动物， 一旦它们 的 后代能够照料自己， 它们就不管了♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜； 但是人， 由于抚养子女的时间长， 是难以这样做的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。（待 续） （译自《记忆中的肖像及其它》Lesson 1 (C—E) 旧梦重温 冰心 王一地同志从年就当了中国少年儿童出版社的编辑， 我 们在多次“儿童文学 ”的聚会中早就认识了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。如今，能为他的这本散文集作序，我觉得很 荣幸◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我必须承认，我的时间和精力似乎越来越少了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。一地同志送来了他的部分稿子，我 不 能仔细地欣赏，但我却充分感觉他的文章的魅力◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。如《海乡风情》写出了他对童年生活 的眷 恋◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 《心上的河流》写出了他对于小河流水的深情，这使我忆起我所热爱的无边的大 海◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。他在国内旅游过的地方， 除了井冈山以外， 都是我没有到过的♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜！ 如丝绸之路上的阿克 苏， 青藏公路上的唐古拉、昆仑等，这又使我十分羡慕◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。这几年来，我因行动不便，整天过 着 “井蛙”的无聊生活，读了这游记，绚丽生动得如经其境，给了我很大的快乐◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 他到过的 国外地方，我在半个世纪以前就到过了，如伦敦、巴黎、罗马、佛罗伦等欧 洲城市◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。虽然 时代不同，我想历史古迹总该是依旧吧◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。如同旧梦重温一般，我回忆起 1936 年在伦敦的 3 个星期，在昼夜看不到日、月、星、三光的浓雾之中，参观了大英博物馆、敏纳斯特教堂— —访问了一些英国朋友◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 使我喜欢的就是在这个国家到处都是绿茵茵的， 比解 放前的北 京看去舒服多了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 提到巴黎， 我永远忘不了我在那里逗留的 100 天◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我住在第 7 区以 意大利诗人马利亚· 希 利命名的一条街的 7 层楼上（我在《关于女人》里写的《我的房 东》说的就是我在巴黎那一 段生活中的一部分） ◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。因为住处离罗浮宫很近，我就整个上午 “泡”在罗浮宫里◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。蒙娜丽莎 的画像是悬挂在一条长案的上面，在两根绿色蜡烛的中间◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我常常立在这长案旁边，吃我的 简单早餐——一包巧克力糖♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜！ 吃过早餐， 就出来坐在宫 门台阶上， 欣赏宫门口那一座大花坛， 花坛里栽的是红、黄、白、紫四色分明的盛开的郁 金香♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜！ （待续） （选自《光明日报》 ） 参考译文： Going Through Old Dreams By Bing Xin Comrade Wang Yidi became an editor of the China Children Press as early as 19b style="color:white;background-color:#990099"5/b7 and we came to know each other at the meetings held by “Children’s Literature”. I find it a great honnour to be asked to write a preface to this collection of his essays. I must admit that my time and energy seem to be running short. I was unable to read carefully and enjoy all the articles he had sent me, but I was fully aware of the charm of his writings. In “Episodes in My Homeland near the Sea”, he xpressed his deep feelings towards the flowing water of a creek, which reminded me of my own love for the boundless, wast sea. In China, he has been to many places which I have never vistited, with the exception of the Jinggang Moountains. His trips to Aksu on the Silk Road, the Danggula and the Kunlun Mountains on the Qinghai-Tibet Highway and many other places all aroused my envy. In crcent years, unable to move about easily, I have been leading a dull life like that of “a frog at the bottom of a well”. Reading his travel notes gave me great pleasure because they are so colourful and vivid that I felt was actually there. Overseas, he has been to places such as London, Paris, Rome and Florence in Europe, which I had vistited half a century ago. Times are different, but the historic sites, I prsume, must have remained the same. Just like going through old dreams, I remembered the three weeks I had spent in London in 1936. During that time, when the sun, the moon and the stars were hidden behind the thick fog day and night, I visted the British Museum and the Westminster and called on my English friends. What I liked best was the refreshing green which could be seen all over the country. It was much more pleasant to the eye than Beijing before liberation. Speaking of Paris, I could never forget the hundred days I had spent there. I lived on the sith floor of a building in a street named after the Italian poet Maria Hilida in District 7 (“My Landlady” included in my book About Women was based on some of my experiences in Paris at the time). As I was very close to the Louvre, I would loiter in the palace the whole morning. The portrait of mona Lisa was hung above a narrow, long table with two green candles on either side. I would often stand at the table, having my simplebreakfast—a bar of chocolate. After that, I would come out and sit on the steps at the entrance of the palace, enjoying the big flower beds near the gate filled with blooming tulips of distinctive red, yellow, white and purple.Unit 6 Literature.doc Unit 6 Literature(1) Lesson 16(E—C) Tess of the D’Urbervilles(1) By Thomas Hardy On an evening in the latter part of May a middle-aged man was walking homeward from Shaston to the village of Marlott, in the adjoinning Vale of Blakemore or Blackmoor. The pair of legs that carried him were rickety, and there was a bias in his gait which inclined him somewhat to the left of a straight line. He occasinally gave a smart nod, as if in confirmation of some opinion, though he was not thinking of anything in particular. An empty egg-basket was slung upon his arm, the nap of his hat was reffled, a patch being quite worn away at its brim where his thumb came in taking it off. Presently hi was met by an elderly parson astride on a gray mare, who, as he rode, hummed a wandering tune. ‘Good night t’ee,’ said the man with the basket. ‘Good night, Sir John,’ said the parson. The pedestrian, after another pace or two, halted, and turned round. ‘Now, sir, begging your pardon; we met last market-day on this road about this time, and I zaid “Good night,” and you made reply “Good night, Sir John,” as now.’ ‘I did,’ said the parson. ‘And once before that—near a month ago.’ ‘I may have.’ ‘Then what might your meaning be in calling me “Sir John” these different times, when I be plain Jack Durbeyfield, the haggler? The parson rode a step or two nearr. ‘It was only my whim,’ he said; and, after a moment’s hesitation: ‘It was on account of a discovery I made some little time ago, whilst I was hunting up pedigres for the new county history. I am Parson Tringham, the antiquary, of Stagfoot Lane. Don’t you reaally know, Durbeyfield, that you are the lineal representative of the ancient and knightly family of the d’Urbervilles, who dervie their descent from Sir Pagan d’Urberville, that renowned knight who came from Normandy with William the Conqueror, as appears by Battle Abbey Roll?’ ‘Never heard it before, sir!’ ‘Well it’s true.’ … ‘But you’ll turn back and have a quart of beer wi’me on the strength o’t Pa’son Tringham? There’ a very pretty brew in tap at The Pure Drop—though, to be s sure, not so good as at Rolliver’ ‘No, thank you—not this evening, Durbeyfield. You’ had s.’ ve enough already.’ (from Thomas Hardy, Tess of the D’Urbervilles, Chapter 1) 译文： 五月后半月里，有一天傍晚，一个中年男子，正打沙氏屯，朝着跟这相连的那 个布蕾 谷（或者布莱谷）里面的马勒村往家里走去◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。支着他的那两条腿老是摇摇晃晃的， 他走路的 姿势里，又总有一种倾斜的趋势，使他或多或少地往一条直线的左边歪◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。待一会 儿他就轻快 地把头一点，好像是对某一个意见表示赞成似的，其实他心里头可并没想什么 特别的事儿◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 他胳膊上挎着一个空着的鸡蛋篮子，他头上那顶帽子的绒头都乱七八糟的，帽 檐上摘帽子的 时候大拇指接触的那个地方还磨掉了一大块◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 他往前刚走了一会儿， 就有 一个要上年纪的牧 师， 跨着一匹灰色的骒马， 一路信口哼着一个小调儿， 迎着面儿走来◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 “晚 安， ”挎篮子的人说◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 “约翰爵士，晚安， ”牧师说◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 那个步行的男子又走了一两步， 站住了脚，转过身来： “先生，对不起◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。上次赶集的日子，咱们差不多也是这样儿在这条 路上碰见的， 那回 俺对你说 ‘晚安’ ， 你也跟刚才一样回答说 ‘约翰爵士， 晚安’ ◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 “不 ” 错，是， ”牧师说◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 “在那一次以前，大概有一个月了，也有过这么一回◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 ” “也许◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 ” “俺分明是平平常常的杰克· 德北， 一个乡下小贩子， 你可三番两次地老叫俺 ‘约翰 爵士’， 到底是什么意思？ 牧师拍马走近了一两步◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 “那不过是我一时的高兴就是了， ”他说♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜； 跟着迟疑了一会儿： “那是因为不久以前， 我正考查各家的谱系预备编新郡志的时候，发 现了一个事情，所以我才这么称呼你◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我是丝 台夫路的崇干牧师兼博古家◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 德北， 你真 不知道你就是那古老的武士世家德伯氏的嫡派子孙 吗？德伯氏的始祖是那位有名气的武士 裴根· 德伯爵士， ‘纪功寺谱’ 据 上说， 他是跟着胜 利王维廉从诺曼底到英国来的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 ”“从来没听说过，先生♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜！ ” “这是真事◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 ” ?? “可是，崇干牧师，既是这样，那你回来 跟俺去喝它一夸特啤酒，好不好？清酒店有 开了桶的好酒，可是比起露力芬店里的，自然 还差点儿◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 ” “谢谢你，不喝了，今儿晚上不喝了，德北◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我瞧你喝的已经不少了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 ” Lesson 17(E—C) An American Tragedy(1) By Theodore Dreiser To-day, being driven by the necessity of doing something for him, h entered the drug store which occupied the principal corner, facing 14th street at Baltimore, and finding a girl cashier in a small glas cage near the door, asked of her who was in charge of the soda fountain. Interested by his tentative and uncertain manner, as well as his deep and rather appealing eyes, and instinctively judging that he was looking for something to do, she observed: “why, Mr.Secor, there, the manager of the store.” She nodded in the direction of a short, meticulously dressed man of about thirty-five, who was arranging an especial display of toilet novelies on the top of a glass case. Clyde approached him, and being still very dubious as to how one went about getting anything in life, and finding him engrossed in what he was doing, stood first on one foot and then on the other, until at last, sensing someone was hovering about for something, the man turned: “Well?” he queried. “You don’t happen to ned a soda fountain helper, do you?” Clyde cast at him a glance that sid as plain as anythng could, “If you have any such place, I wish you would please give it to me. I need it.” “No, no, no,” eplied this individual, who was blond and vigorous and by nature a little irritabl and contentious. He was about to turn away, but seeing a flicker of disappointment and depression pass over Clyde’s face, he turned and added, “Ever work in a place like this efore?” “No place as fine as this No, sir.” Replied Clyde, rather fancifully moved by all that was about him. “I’m working now down at Mr.Klinkle’s store at 7th and Brooklyn, but it isn’t anything like this one and I’d like to get something better if I could.” “Uh,” went on his interviewer, rather pleased by the innocent tribute to the superirity of his store. “Well, that’s reasonable enough. But there isn’t anything here right now that I could offer you. We don’t make many changes. But if you’d like to be a bellboy, I can tell you where you might get a place. They’re looking for an etra boy in the hotel inside there right now. The capptain of the boys was telling me he was in need of one. I should think that would be as good as helping about a soda fountain, any day.” Then seeing Clyde’s face suddenly brighten, he added: “But you mustn’t say that I sent you, because I don’t know you. Just ask for Mr. Squires inside there, under the stairs, and he can tell you all about it.” (from Theodore Drieser, An American Tragedy, Book 1, Chapter 4) 译文： 今天他因为急于要给自己想个办法，迫不得已，便走进了那家杂货店◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。这家店 铺座落 在巴尔第摩街路口，正面是十四号街，地位正当要冲◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。他看见靠近门口的一座小玻 璃柜房里 有一个女出纳员， 就去向她打听卖汽水的柜台归谁负责◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 这个姑娘一看他那试 控和踌躇的神 情和他那双深沉、 相当讨人欢喜的眼睛， 便对他发生了兴趣◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 她直觉地揣 测到他是要找事做， 便说： “欧♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜！塞科尔先生，在那儿，他是本店的经理◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 ”——她朝 一个三十五岁上下的矮个子 男人那边点点头◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。那个人穿得很讲究，一点也不马虎◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。他正在 布置一只玻璃柜上的一些新奇 化妆品，要摆成一种特别的式样◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。克莱德走到他身边，不过 心里还在犹疑不定，不知道应该 怎样才能找个出路，同时他又看出人家正在全神贯注地干 他手头的事情，于是便站在一边， 两只脚替换着歇一歇◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。到后来，那个经理觉得仿佛有人 在他身边守着，想找他谈什么事，这 才转过身来说： “有事吗？” “您这儿卖汽水的柜 台上要不要添个助手？”克莱德对他望了一眼，把自己的迫切心 情表露得再清楚不过了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 “要是有这样的位置， 就请您让我来干吧◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我想找这么个事情◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 ”“没有， 没有， 没有， ” 这个人回答说◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。他长得漂漂亮亮、精神饱满，生性有点暴躁， 喜欢争吵◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。他正想走开，可是一看克莱德脸上掠过一阵失望和沮丧的神色， 就转过身来说： “从前在这种地方做过吗？” “没有在这么讲究的地方做过◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。没有，先生， ”克莱德回答说◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。这里的一切景象不免使 他 眼花缭乱， 很感兴奋◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。“我眼下在七号街和布鲁克林街拐角， 克林克尔先生店里帮忙◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 这 跟 儿比起来， 那就算不上什么了， 我要是能找到好一些的事， 倒是希望挪个地方◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 ”“欧， ” 跟他谈话的这个人一听他这么天真地给他的铺子捧场，相当高兴，于是就说： “欧， 这倒 是人情之常◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。不过眼下我这儿没有什么事给你做◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我们不常换人◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。不过你要是 愿意在饭店 里做服务员， 我倒可以告诉你上那去找个位置◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 这里面的饭店眼下正要添个服务 员◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。那 儿的领班跟我说过， 他需要找个伙计◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我看这个差事总赶得上在卖汽水的柜台上当帮 手吧◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。” 他一看克莱德脸上突然露出喜色，又接着说： “不过你千万别说是我介绍你去的，因为 我 并不认识你◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。你只要上那里面去，到楼梯下面找史魁尔斯先生就行了，一切情形他会告诉你◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 ” （选自许汝祉译《美国的悲剧》 ） Lesson 18(C—E) 祝福（摘录 1） 鲁迅 她不是鲁镇人◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 有一年的冬初， 四叔家里要换女工， 做中人的卫老婆子带她进来了， 头 上扎着白头绳，乌裙，蓝夹袄，月白前心，年纪大约二十六七，脸色青黄，但两颊却还是 工 的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。卫老婆子叫她祥林嫂， 说是自己母家的邻舍，死了当家的， 所以出来做工了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。四叔皱 了 皱眉， 四婶已经知道了他的意思， 是在讨厌她是一个寡妇◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 但看她模样还周正， 手脚都壮 大， 又只是顺着眼，不开一句口，很像一个安分耐劳的人，便不管四叔的皱眉，将她留下◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 试 工期内， 她整天的做， 似乎闲着就无聊， 又有力， 简直抵得过一个男子， 所以第三天就定 局， 每月工资五百文◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 大家都叫她祥林嫂♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜；没问她姓什么，但中人是卫家山人，既说是邻居， 那大概也姓卫 了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。她不爱说话，别人问了才回答，回答的也不多◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。直到十几天之后，这才 陆续的知道她家 里还有严厉的婆婆♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜；一个小叔子，十多岁，能打柴了♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜；她是春天没了丈夫 的♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜； 他本来也打柴 为生， 比她小十岁： 大家所知道的就只是这一点◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 日子很快的过去了， 她的做工却毫没有懈， 食物不论，力气是不惜的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。人们都说鲁四老爷家里雇着了女工，实 在比勤快的男人还勤快◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 到年底，扫尘、洗地、杀鸡、宰鹅，彻夜的煮福礼，全是一人担 当，竟没有添短工◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。然而她 反满足，口角边渐渐的有了笑影，脸上也白胖了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 （选自《鲁 迅全集》第二卷） 译文： The New Year’s Sacrifice (Ecerpt) She was not from Luzhen. Early one winter, when my uncle’s family wanted a new maid, Old Mrs. Wei the go-between brought her along. She had a white mourning band round heer hair and was wearing a black shirt, blue jacket, and pale green bodice. Her age was about twenty-six, and though her face was sallow her cheeks were red. Old Mrs. Wei introduced her as Xianglin’s Wife, a neighbour of her mother’s family, who wanted to go out to work now that her husband had died. My uncle frowned at this, and my aunt knew that he disapproved of taking on a widow. She looked just the person for them, though, with her big strong hands and feet; and, judging by her downcast eyes and silence, she was a good worker who would know her place. So my aunt ignored my uncle’s frown and kept her. During her trial period she wouked from morning till night as if she found resting irksome, and proved strong enough to do the work of a man; so on the third day she was taken on for five hundred cash a month. Everybody called her ianglin’s Wife and no one asked her own name, but since she had been introduced by someone from Wei Village as a neighbour, her surname was presumably also Wei. She said little, only answering briefly when asked a question. Thus it took them a dozen days or so to find out bit by bit that she had a strict mother-in –law at home and a brother-in –law of ten or so, old enough to cut wood. Her husband, who had died that spring, had been a woodcutter too, and had been ten years younger than she was. This little was all they could learn. Time passed quickly. She went on working as hard as ever, not caring what she ate, never sparing herself. It was generally agreed that the Lu family’s maid actually got through more work than a hard-working man. At the end of the year, she swept and mopped the floors, killed the chickens and geese, and sat up to boil the sacrificial meat, all single-handed, so that they did not need to hire etra help. And she for her part was quite contented. Little by little the trace of a smile appeared at the corners of her mouth, while her face became whiter and plumper. (Translated by Yang Xianyi and Gladys Yang)Unit 7 Literature.doc Unit 7 Literature (2) Lesson 19(E—C) East of Eden(1) By John SteinbeckThe Salinas Valley is in Northern California. It is a long narrow swale betwwen two ranges of mountains, and the Salinas River winds and twists up the center until it falls at last into Monterey Bay. I remember my childhood names for grasses and secret flowers. I remember where a toad may live and what time the irds awaken in the summer—and what trees and seasons smelled like—how people looked and walked and smelled even. The memory of odors is very rich. I remember that the Gabilan Mountains to the east of the valley were light gay mountains full of sun and loveliness and a kind of invitation, so that you wanted to climb into their warm foothills almost as you want to climb into the lap of a beloved mother. They were beckoning mountains with a brown grass love. The Santa Lucias stood up against the sky to the west and kept the valley from the open sea, and they were dark and brooding—unfriendly and dangerous. I always found in myself a dread of west and a love of east. Where I ever got such an idea I cannot say, unless it could be that the morning came over the peaks of the Gabilans and the night drifted back from the ridges of the Santa Lucias. It may be that the birth and death of the day had some part in my feeling about the two ranges of mountains. From both sides of the valley little streams slpipped out of the hill canyons and fell into the bed of the Salinas River. In the winte of wet years the streams ran full-freshet, and they swelled the river until sometimes it raged and boiled, bank full, and then it was a destroyer. The river tore the edges of the farm lands and washed whole acres down; it toppled barns and houses into itself, to go floating and bobbing away. It trapped cows and pigs and sheep and drowned them in its muddy brown water and carried them to the sea. Then when the late spring came, the river drew in from its edges and the sand banks appeared. And in the summer the river didn’t run at all above ground. Some pools would be left in the deep swirl places under a high bank. The tules and grasses grew back, and willows straightened up with the flood debris in their upper branches. The Salinas was only a part-time river. The summer sun drove it underground. It was not a fine river at all, but it was the only one we had and so we boasted about it—how dangerous it was in a wet winter and how dry it was in a dry summer. You can boast about anything if it’s all you have. Maybe the less you have, the more you are required to boast. (from John Steinbeck, East of Eden, Chapter1) 译文： 萨利内斯河谷位于加利福民亚州北部◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。那是两条山脉之间的一片狭长的洼地， 萨利内 斯河蜿蜒曲折从中间流过， 最后注入蒙特雷海湾◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我记得儿时给各种小草和隐蔽的 小花取的名字◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我记得蛤蟆喜欢在什么地方栖身，鸟 雀夏天早晨什么时候醒来——我还记 得树木和不同季节特有的气息——记得人们的容貌、 走 路的姿势、甚至身上的气味◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。关于 气味的记忆实在太多啦◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我记得河谷东面的加毕仑山脉总是阳光璀璨、明媚可爱，仿佛向 你殷勤邀请，你不禁 想爬上暖洋洋的山麓小丘， 正像爬到亲爱的母亲怀里那样◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 棕色的 草坡给你爱抚， 向你召唤◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 西面的圣卢西亚斯山脉高耸入云，黑压压地挡在河谷和大海之 间，显得不友好而危险◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我发现自己一直对西方怀有畏惧，而对东方怀有喜爱◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我说不出这 种想法的根子在什么地方， 许是因为黎明从加比仑山顶升起， 夜晚从圣卢西亚斯山脊压 也 下来◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 每一天的诞生和消亡也许 使我对两条山脉产生了不同的感情◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 洼地两面的小峡谷 都有涧水流出，汇入萨利纳斯河床◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。在多雨的年份，冬天水流充沛， 引起河面暴涨，有时 候汹涌翻腾，泛滥两岸，就成了祸害◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。河水冲坏农田边级，毁掉大片大 片的土地，使牲口 棚和房屋坍塌，卷入洪流，漂浮而去◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。牛、猪、羊走投无路，在黄褐色的 泥水里眼睁睁地 淹死，给带到海里◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。春末时分，河面变窄，露出了沙岸◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。到了夏天，地上河 水完全断流◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 只有原先岸高漩涡深的地方才留下几个水塘◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。芦苇和茅草重新生长，柳树直起 躯干，上部 的枝桠还挂着洪水留下的枯枝败草◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 它根本不是条了不起的河流， 但是我们只有 这么一条， 因此便为它吹嘘◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。如果你别无他有，你可以为任何东西吹嘘◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。也许你有的东西越 少，你就越要吹吹牛皮◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 （选自王仲年译《伊甸之东》 ） Lesson 20 (E—C) The Sund of Music(Ecerpt 1) By Maria Augusta Trapp Suddenly I heard quick footsteps behind me, and a full, resonant voice exchaimed: “I see you are looking at my flag.” There he was—the Captain! The tall, well-dressed gentleman standing before me was certainly a far cay from the old sea wolf of my imagination. His air of complete self-assurance and somewhat lordly bearing would have frightened me, had it not been for his warm and hearty hadndshake. “I am so glad you have come, Fraulein…” I filled in, “maria.” He took me in from topp to toe with a quick glance. All of a sudden I became very conscious of my funny dress, and sure enough, there I was diving under my helmet again. But the Captain’s eyes rested on my shoes. We were still standing in the hall when he said: “I want you to meet the children first of all.” Out of his pocket he took an odd-shaped, ornamented brass whistle, on which he piped a series of complicated trills. I must have looked highly amazed, because he said, a little apologeticall: “You see it taks so long to call so many children by name, that I’ve given them each a different whistle.” Of course, I now expected to hear a loud banging of doors and a chorus of giggles and shouts, the scampering feet of youngsters jumping down the steps and sliding down the banister. In stead, led by a sober-faced young girl in her arly teens, an almost solemn little procession descended step by step in well-mannered silence—four girls and two boys, all dressed in sailor suits. For and instant we stared at each other in utter amazement. I had never seen such perfect little ladies and gentlemen, and they had never seen such a helmet. “Here is our new teacher, Fraulein Maria.” “Gruss Gott, Fraulein Maria,” six voices echoed in unison. Six perfect bows followed. That wasn’t real. That couldn’t be true. I had to shove back that ridiculosu hat again. This push, bowerer, was the last. Down came the ugly brown thing, rolled on the shiny parquet floor, and landed at the tiny feet of a very pretty, plump little girl of about five. A delingted giggle cut through the severe silence. The ice was broken. We all laughed. (from Maria Augusta Trapp, The Sound of Music) 参考译文： 音乐之声（摘录 1） 玛丽亚·奥古斯塔·特拉普 我突然听见身后有急促的脚 步声，接着就听见一个非常宏亮的声音说道： “看来您是在 看我的旗子哪♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜！ ” 这个人， 就是舰长◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 站在我面前的是一位身材高大、衣着讲究的先生，与我先前想像的老海怪完全 不同◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 他和我握手的时候是那样热情， 那样真挚， 要不然他那十分自信的神气和略为高 傲的派头真 会使我害怕呢◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 “你来了， 我真高兴◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 小姐您叫??” 我连忙说 “玛丽亚◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 ” 他以敏捷的眼光把我从头到脚打量了一番◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我突然强烈地感到自己这身衣服非常可笑◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我 真的又拉了拉帽子，想在帽子底下躲一躲◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。可是舰长的眼光却落到了我的鞋上◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 这时我们 还在大厅里站着◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。他忽然说： “我想让你先见见孩子们吧◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 ” 他从口袋里掏出一个样子 很怪但很精致的铜哨子，吹了一连串复杂的信号◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我一定是显得很惊奇，因为他略带歉意 地对我说： “你看，这么多孩子，要是一个个挨 着叫名字，就得叫好半天，所以我就吹哨 子，而且各有各的吹法◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 ” 这时我想一定会听到“砰♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜！砰♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜！ ”的关门声，叽叽嗄嘎的说 笑声， 孩子们下楼时嘈杂的 脚步声， 他们一定是连跑加跳， 有的还要顺着扶手滑下来◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 可 是看见的却是一支小小的队伍， 在一个十来岁的沉静的女孩子带领下， 规规矩矩不声不响 地一磴磴走下来， 科可以说他们是 非常严肃的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。他们是四个女孩子，两个男孩子，都穿着 水手服◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我们以非常惊奇的眼光彼此 看了片刻◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我从来没有见过这样出色的孩子，都像小 女士、小先生一样，他们也从来没有见 过我这样的帽子◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 “这是我们新来的老师，玛丽亚 小姐◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 ” “玛丽亚小姐，您好♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜！ ”六个人齐声说道◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。接着又一本正大光明地鞠了六个躬◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 这不是真的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。这不可能是真的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我不得不把那顶可笑的帽子又往后推一推◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。不过这一 推可就完了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。那棕色的丑东西一下子掉下来，在光亮的图案的地板上滚了一会儿，在一个大 约 五岁的胖呼呼的漂亮姑娘那双小脚旁停了下来◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 一阵咯咯的欢笑声打破了严肃而沉寂的气 氛◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。谁也不拘束了，大家都笑了起来◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 Lesson 21(C—E) 找点活 新凤霞 在旧社会里，我们评剧演员常常挣钱不够吃饭，艺人们大都是拉家带口，生 活困难◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 演员们唱完戏还要各自找点儿活干，有人拉排子车，有人卖破烂，卖烟卷儿，当 小工，拾烟 头是普遍现象◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。下雨或阴天回戏，不响锣就不给钱，是那时的规矩◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。腊月二十 三封箱，把“祖师爷” 请到前台去，后台冷冷清清，演员们就更苦了，要等到年初一开戏 了，才能挣到钱◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我家里生活苦，父亲做小买卖，妈妈是家庭妇女，弟弟妹妹多，家里最 大的是我，才 十三岁，就唱戏养家了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。真是一个钱撕成八瓣用，心里总想着怎样能够改善 家里的困境◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。早 晨去喊嗓子， 我带关一个小拾煤核， 为了回家取暖◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 拾煤核也要放聪明 点儿， 常常换换地方， 为的不受那些野孩子的欺负◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 那些男孩子是成群结队的拾煤核， 我 是一个人， 怕被他们欺负， 我用换地方的办法， 躲着他们◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 他们看见女孩拾煤核就捣乱， 揪我的小辫， 向我身上扔虫子， 吓得我看见他们就躲◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 腊月二十三灶王爷上天，后台封 上戏箱，要等年初一开戏◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。封箱回戏，等于演员们封 嘴，大家可苦了，各自找生活路子， 我们女孩儿就做点女孩子能做的活◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我同几个女孩子去 东亚毛纺织厂当小工，分线头、扫 地等干点杂活◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。每天天不亮戴着星星去排队，工厂没开大 门就排上老长的队了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。工头拿着 皮鞭从大门出来，像轰牲口一样轰人，一个挨一个地用粉笔 在人们背上写上号码，这个号 码就是上工的证明◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。当这个小工真不容易◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。经常是排了一早晨 队，大门才开♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜；画了不多的 号，工头就说： “没号了♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜！没号了♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜！ ”那种失望心情就别提多难受 了♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜！有一次是夏天， 连阴天，连着回戏◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我只好去排队找活干◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。还好，因为去和早，没等多 久就画上号了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。回 家时忽然下了大雨，一路跑回家，我完全想不到自己被淋，只想着背上面 的号，要是被雨 淋掉了， 工就做不成了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我急着把衣服脱下来， 大雨像瓢泼一样， 我把衣服 紧紧抱在怀里， 飞快跑回家◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。回到家里打开一看就高兴了，号码一点也没有被淋湿♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜；可我从 头到脚淋成了 落汤鸡了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 （选自《新凤霞回忆录》 ） 译文： Looking for Work By Xin Fengxia In the old society, pingju players seldom made enough to live on, and as most were saddled with big families their life was hard. Apart from acting they had to find other work. Often they pulled handcarts, sold junk or cigarettes, hired themselves out as coolies, or collected cigarette stubs. If a performance was cancelled because of bad wether, the rule in those days was: No show, no pay. On the twenty-third of the twelfth lanar moth, when theatres closed and the patron sint of actors was invited to the fromt stage, leaving the backstage deserted, actors were even worse off, unable to earn any more until the reopening on New Year’s Day. My family was hard up, with Father a pddler, Mother a housewife, and so many children to feed. At thirteen, as the eldest child, I acted to help support the family. Each single copper had to be eked out, and I kept racking my brains for ways to improve our difficult conditions. Each morning when I went out to practise singing in the open air, I took a little basket to scrounge for cinders for our stove. Even when scrounging for cinders you had to have your wits about you and shift from place to place to avoid those mischievouos boys who banded together to collect cinders too. Being all on my own and afraid of being bullied by them, I shifted around to dodge them. Because when they found me scavenging they made trouble, pulling my plait or throwing insects at me, so that the sight of them frightened me away. On the twenty-third of the twelfth lunar month the Kitchen God wnt up to heaven, and the theatre shut down until New Year’s Day. When that happened, actors’pay stopped and they were hard put to it. Each had tofend for himself, and we young actresses did whatever work we could pick up, I went with some other girls to the East Asia Woollen Mill to do odd jobs like unraveling strands of wool or sweeping the floor. We had to queue up before dawn when there were still stars in the sky. A long queue formed before the mill’s gate opened. The foreman came out with a whip, as if herding cattle, and chalked a number on our backs, one by one. That number showed that we were taken on. But such small jobs were really hard to come by . Often, when we’d queued up for hours before the gate opened, after chalking a few numbers the foreman would say, “That’s all! No more hands needed!” At that we felt too disappointed for words! One summer a spell of bad weather closed down our theatre, and I went to queue up. I was lucky. Because I went early, before long I had a number chalked on my back. By the time we knocked off it was pouring with rain. As I ran home I didn’t mind being soaked. I was only worried that if the rain washed off the nubmer on my back I wouldn’t be able to go to work the next day. I frantically took off my gown, while it rained cats and dogs. Clutching my gown to my heart I flew home, and there, unfolding it, I was overjoyed to find that the number wasn’t washed out, though I was drenchd from head to foot like a drowned rat. *This was said to be the Tang emperor Minghuang, who founded the Pear Garden Company of actors. An altar for him was kept backstage, but moved to the front stage when the theatre closed. (Translated by Gladys Yang)Unit 8 Popular Science.doc Unit 8 Popular Science Lesson 22(E—C) Oil(1) By G.. C. Thornley There are three main groups of oil:animal, vegetable and mineral. Great quantities of animal oil come from whales, those enormous creatures of the sea which are the largest remaining animals in the world. To protect the whale from the cold of the Arctic seas, nature has provided it with a tick covering of fat called blubber. When the whale is killed, the blubber is stripped off and boiled down, either on board ship or on shore. It produces a great quantity of oil which can be made into food for human consumption. A few other creatures yield oil, but none so much as the whale. The livers of the cod and the halibut, two kinds of fish, yield nourishing oil. Both cod liver oil and halibut liver oil are given to sick children and other invalids who need certain vitamins. These oils may be bought at any chemist’s. Vegetable oil has been known from antiquity. No household can get on without it, for it is used in cooking. Perfumes may be made from the oils of certain flowers. Socpa are made from vegetable and animal oils. To the ordinary man, one kind of oil may be as important as another. But when the politician or the engineer refers to oil, he almost always means mineral oil, the oil that drives tanks, aeroplanes and warships, motor-cars and diesel locomotivs, the oil that is used to lubricate all kinds of machinery. This is the oil that is used to lubricate all knids of machinery. This is the oil that has changed the life of the common man. When it is refined into petrol it is used to drive the internal combustion engine. To it we owe the existence of the motor-car, which has replaced the private carriage drawn by the horse. To it we owe the possibility of flying. It has changed the horse. To it we owe the possiblility of flying. It has changed the methods of warfare on land and sea. This knid of oil comes out of the earth. Because it burns well, it is used as fuel and in some ways it is superior to coal in this repect. Many big ships now burn oil instead of coal. Because it burns brightly, it is used for illumination; countless homes are still illuminated with oil-burning lamps. Because it is very slippery, it is used for lubrication. Two metal surfaces rubbing together cause friction and heat; but if they are separated by a thin film of oil, the friction and heat are reduced. No machine would work for longif it were not properly lubricated. The oil used for this purpose must be of the correct thickness; if it is too thin it will not give sufficient lubrication, and if it is too thick it will not reach all parts that must e lubricated. (from English Through Reading) 参考译文： G.C.索恩利 油可以分为三大类：动物油、植物油、矿物油◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。大量的动物油是从 鲸鱼身上得来的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 鲸鱼是海里的庞然大物，是世界上现有动物中最大的一种◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。大自然为了 保护鲸鱼，使它不不 致在北冰洋受冻，便让它长了厚厚的一层脂肪，叫做鲸脂◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。鲸鱼杀死 之后，把鲸脂剥下来熬 油，这项工作有的是在船上进行的，有的是在岸上进行的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。这样， 就能生产出大量的油，供 人们食用◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。有些动物也出油，但都没有鲸鱼出得多◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。鳕鱼和比目 鱼， 这两种鱼的肝脏出的油营养丰富◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 从这两种鱼得来的鱼肝油可以给缺少某种维生素的患 儿或其他病人服用◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 这两 种鱼肝油在任何一家药房里都可以买到◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 植物油自古以来就为 人们所熟悉◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。任何家庭都离不开它，因为做饭的时候就要用它◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 有些花儿产生的油可以用 来制造香水◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。植物油和动物油还可以用来制作肥皂◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 对一般人来说，这种油或那种油可能 都是重要的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。但是当政治家或工程师谈到油的时 候，他所指的几乎总是矿物油◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。这种油可 以用来开坦克，开飞机，开军舰，开汽车，开柴油 机车，可以用来润滑各种机械◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。就是这 种油改变了普通人的生活◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。这种油经过提炼变成汽油 以后，可以用来开动内燃机◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。就是因 为有了这种油，我们才有可能飞行◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。它还改变了陆战和 海战的方法◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。这种油来源于地下◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 因为它易于燃烧，可以用作燃料，而且在这方面比煤还有 若干优越之处◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 现在许多大轮船 就烧油而不烧煤◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 因为它燃烧时非常明亮， 也可以用来照明， 许多家庭现在仍靠没灯照 明◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。因为它非常滑润，可以用作润滑剂◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。两个金属面相擦，就要产 生摩擦和热♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜；但如果在 它们之间抹上薄薄的一层油，就可以减少摩擦，降低热度◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。任何机械 如果不使用一定的润 滑剂，就不能持续工作◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。润滑油的浓度必须适当，太稀则起不到应有的 润滑作用，太稠则 流不到所有需要润滑的零件◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 Lesson 23(E—C) The Other Road(1) By Rachel Carson We stand now where two roads diverge. But unlike the roads in Robert Frost’s familiar poem, they are not equally fair. The road we have long been traveling is deceptively easy, a smooth superhigh-way on which we progress with great speed, but at its end lies disaster. The other fork of the road—the one “less traveled by”—offers our last, our only chance to reach a destination that assures the preservation of our earth. The choice, after all, is ours to make. If, having endured much, we have at last asserted our “right to know”, and if, knowing, we have concluded that we are being asked to take senseless and frightening risks, then we should no longer accept the counsel of those who tell us we must fill our world with poisonous chemicals; we should look about and see what other course is open to us. A truly extraordinary varity of alternatives to the chemical control of insects is available. Some are already in use and have achieved brilliant success. Others are in the stage of laboratory testing. Still others are little more than ideas in the minds of imaginative scientists, waiting for the opportunity to put them to the test. All have this in common: they are biological solutions, based on under standing of the living organisms they seek to control, and of the whole fabric of life to which these orgai\nisms belong. Specialists representing various areas of the vast field of biology are contributing—entomologists, pathologists, geneticists, physiologists, biochemists, ecologists—all pouring their knowledge and their creative inspirations into the formation of a new science of biotic controls. “Any science may be likened to a river,” says a Johns Hopkins biologist, Professor Carl P. Swanson. “It has its obscure and unpretentious beginning;; its quiet stretches as well as its rapids; its periods of drought aswell as of fullness. It gathers momentum with the work of many investinagators and as it is fed by other streams of thought; it is deepened and broadened by the concepts and generalizaations that are gradually evolved.” So it is with the science of biological control in its modern sense. In america it had its obscure beginnings a century ago with the first attempts to introduce natural enemies of insects that were proving troublesome to farmers, an effort that sometimes moved slowly or not at all, but now and again gathered speed and momentum under the impetus of an outstanding success. It had its period of drought when workers in applied entomology, dazzled by the spectacular new insecticides of the 1970’s, turned their backs on all biological methods and set foot on “the treadmill of chemical control.” But the goal of an insect-free world continued to recede. Now at last, as it has become apparent that the heedless and unrestrained use of chemicals is a greater menace to ourselves than to the targets, the river which is the science of biotic control flow again, fed by new streams of thought. Some of the most fascinating of the new methods are those that seek to turn the strength of a species against itself—to use the drive of an insect’s life forces to destroy it. The most spectacular of these approaches if the “male sterilization” technique developed by the chief of the United States Departmet of Agriculture’s Entomology Research Brance, Dr. Edward Knipling, and his associates. (from Rachel Carson, Silent Spring) 参考译文： 新路（摘录 1） 雷切尔·卡森 我们正处于两条道路分岔的地方◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。但是并不像我们所熟习的罗伯特·弗 罗斯特诗中所 说的， 这两条路是同样的好◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我们一直在走的这条跌表面上很好走， 是一 条平坦的超级公路， 我们可以高速前进，但是走到尽头地要遇到灾难◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。另外一条路，是一 条“走得不多”的路， 它为我们提供最后的出路，也是唯一的出路，以便我们达到一定的 目的，使我们这个地球确 实得到保护◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 走哪一条路，最终还是要由我们来选择◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。如果我们 在忍受了很长时间之后，终于提出 了“知情权” ，如果我们知情以后，认为现在人们是在 要求我们冒无谓的可怕风险， 我们就 不应该再听从那些人的建议， 非得把我们这个世界弄 得到处都是化学毒物， 而应该往四下里 看一看还有没有什么别的路◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 除了用化学方法控 制昆虫以外，还有其他各种非常奇妙的方法可以利用◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。这些方法， 有的已在使用，而且取 得了显着的效果◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。有的处于试验阶段◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。有的则不过是富于想像力的科 学家头脑里的一些想 法，等到有机会的时候才能加以试验◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。所有这些方法都有一个共同点： 他们都是生物的解 决办法， 其基础是人们对所要控制的生物体的了解， 以及对这些生物体整 个生活状况的 了解◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。广博的生物学各个领域的学家，包括昆虫学家、病理学家、遗传学家、 生理学家、 生物人学家、生态学家，都在做出贡献，他们把自己的知识和创造性汇聚起来， 形成了一 门新的科学——生物控制学◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 霍普金斯大学生物学家卡尔·P·斯旺森教授说： “每一门 科学都可以比做一条河◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。其 源头，隐隐约约，并不引人注目♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜；其流势，时而平缓，时而湍 急♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜；其水情，有汛期，也有枯 竭期◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。由于许多人从事研究工作，各种思想像支流一样注入 其中，势头逐渐加强◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。新的概念 和结论陆续产生，又使它得以加深和展宽◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 ” 现代的生 物控制学就是如此◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。一百年前，这门科学在美国开始创立时也是隐隐约约的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 当时有些昆 虫给农民找麻烦， 有人就试图以这些昆虫的天敌来对付◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 这项活动有时进展缓慢， 甚至 毫无进展，但有时一项突出的成就又推动它加快速度，使它突飞猛进◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。这门科学也有过 枯 竭期◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。在二十世纪四十年代，从事应用昆虫学的人看到新杀虫剂的显着效用，不禁为之眼花 缭乱， 便对生物方法冷眼相看， 重新走上 “化学控制的老路” ◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 然而实现无昆虫的世界这 一 目标却越来越渺茫◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 现在已经很明显， 盲目地大量使用化学杀虫剂， 对我们自己的威胁比 对 要控制的对象的威胁还要大， 于是生物控制学这一条河又流动起来， 而且有新的思想支流 注入其中◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 在这些新方法中，有一些最为令人神往，就是设法利用一种昆虫本身的力量来对付这 种昆虫——即利用昆虫的生命力作为动力来消灭之◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。这些方法之中，最引人注目的 是“雄性 不育”术，这种技术是由美国农业部昆虫研究所主任爱德华·尼普林博士和他的 同事们发明 的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 Lesson 24(C—E) 海洋可持续发展战略 中国有 12 亿多人口， 陆地自然资源人均占有量低于世界平均水平◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 根据中国有关方面 的统计： 中国有 960 万平方公里的陆地国土， 居世界第三位， 但人均占有陆地面积仅有 0.008 平方公里，远低于世界人均 0.3 平方公里的水平♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜；全国近年来平均淡水资源总量为 28000 亿 立方米，居世界第六位，但人均占有量仅为世界平均水平的四分之一♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜；中国陆地 矿产资源总 量丰富，但人均占有量不到世界人均量的一半◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。中国作为一个发展中的沿海大 国，国民经济 要持续发展，必须把海洋的开发和保护作为一项长期的战略任务◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 中国拥有 大陆岸线 18000 多公里，以及面积在 500 平方米以上的海岛 5000 多个，岛屿 岸线 14000 多公里♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜；按照《联合国海洋法公约》的规定，中国还对广阔的大陆架和专属经济 区 行使主权权利和管辖权♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜； 中国的海域处在中、 低纬度地带， 自然环境和资源条件比较优 越◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 中国海域海洋生物物种繁多，已鉴定的达 20278 种◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。中国海域已经开发的渔场面积达 81.8 万平方海里◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。中国有浅海、滩涂总面积久 1333 万公顷，按现在的科学水平，可进行 人工养 殖的水面有 260 万公顷，已经开发利用的有 93.8 万公顷◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。中国海域有 30 多个沉 积盆地，面 积近 70 万平方公里，石油资源量约 250 亿吨，天然气资源量约 8.4 万亿立 方米◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。中国沿海 共有 160 多处海湾和几百公里深水岸线，许多岸段适合建设港口，发展海 洋运输业◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。沿海地 区共有 1500 多处旅游娱乐景观资源，适合发展海洋旅游业◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。中国海域 还有丰富的海水资源 和海洋可再生能源◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 （摘自《中国海洋事业的发展》第一部分） 译文： Sustainable Marine Development Strategy China has a population of more than 1.2 billion, and its land natural resources per capita are lower than the world’s average. Official statistics show that China has a land area of 9.6 million sq km, making it the third-biggest country in the world. However, the land area per capita is only 0.008 sp km, much lower than the world’s average of 0.3 sq km per capita. In recent years China’s average annual amount of freshwater resources has been 2,800 billion cum, ranking sixth in the world; but the amount of freshwater resources per capita is only one-fourth the world average. China is rich in land mineral resoures, but the amount per capita is less than half the figure per capita worldwide. As a major developing country with a long coastline, China, therefore, must take exploitation and protection of the ocean as a long-term strategic task before it can achieve the sustainable development of its national economy. China boasts a mainland coastline of more than 18,000 km. There are more than 5,000 islands in China’s territorial waters, each with an area of more than 500 sq m, and the islands’ coastlines total more than 14,000 km. China also exercises sovereignty and jurisdiction over the vast continental shelves and exclusive economic zones(EEZs), as defined by the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. Located in medium and low latitudes, China’s sea areas have comparatively advantageous natural environmental and resource conditins. Some 20,278 species of sea creatures have been verified there. The finshing grounds that have been developed in China’s sea areas cover 818,000 square nautical miles. The shallow seas and tidelands have a total area of 13.33 million ha, of which 2.6 million ha of water surface are suitable for the raising of aquatic products in terms of the current scientific level. So far, 938,000 ha are being utilized for this purpose. Scattered in these offshore waters are more than 30 sedimentation basins, with a total area of nearly 700,000 sq km. it is estimated that there are about 25 billion tos of oilresources and 8.4 trillion cu m of natural gas in thse basins. More than 160 bays are spread along China’s coasts, plus the deep-water stretches of coast with a total length of several hundred kilometers. Many spots along the coastline are suitable for constructing harbors and developing marine transportation. There are more than 1,500 torist, scenic and recreational spots favorable for developing marine torurism. In addition, China’s offshore areas abound in seawater resourcs and regenerable marine energy resources. (form Beijing Review)Unit 10 Speeches.doc Unit 10 Speeches Lesson 28(E—C) Speech by President Nixon of the United States at Welcoming Banquet 21 February 1972 Mr. Prime Minister and all of your distinguished guests this evening, On behalf of all your American guests, I wish to thank you for the incomparable hospitality for which the Chinese people are justly famous throughout the world. I particularly want to pay tribute, not only to those who prepared the magnificent dinner, but also to those who have provided the splendid music. Never have I heard American music played better in a foreign land. Mr. Prime Minister, I wish to thank you for your very gracious and eloquent remarks. At this vry moment through the wonder of relecommunications, more people are seeing and hearing what we say than on any other such occasion in the whole history of the world. Yet, what we say here will not be long remembered. What we do here can change the world. As you said in your toast, the Chinese people are a great people, the American people are a great people. If our two people are enemies the future of this world we share together is dark indeed. But if we can find common ground to work together, the chance for world peace is immeasurably increased. In the spirit of frankness which I hope will characterize our talks this week, let us recognize at the outset these points: we have at times in the past been enemies. We have great differences today. What brings us together is that we have common interests which transcend those differences. As we discuss our differences, neither of us will compromise our principles. But while we cannot close the gulf between us, we can try to bridge it so that we may be able to tald across it. 译文： 美国总统尼克松 在欢迎宴会上的讲话 1972 年 2 月 21 日 总理先生，今天晚上在座的诸位贵宾： 我 谨代表你们的所有美国客人向你们表示感谢，感谢你们的无可比拟的盛情款待◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。中 国人民 以这种励情款待而闻名世界◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我们不仅要特别赞扬那些准备了这次盛大晚宴的人， 而 且 还要赞扬那些为我们演奏美好音乐的人◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我在外国从来没有听到过演奏得这么好的美国音 乐◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 总理先生， 我要感谢你的非常盛情和雄辩的讲话◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 此时此刻， 通过电讯的奇迹， 看到 和 听到我们讲话的人经在整个世界历史上任何其他这样的场合都要多◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 不过， 我们在这里所 讲的话，人们不会长久地记住，但我们的这里所做的事却能改变世界◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 正如你在祝酒时讲 的那样，中国人民是伟大的人民，美国人民是伟大的人民◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。如果我 们两国人民互相为敌， 那么我们共同居住的这个世界的前途就的确很暗淡◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。但是，如果我们 能够找到进行合作的 共同点，那么实现世界和平的机会就将无可估量地大大增加◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我希望我们这个星期的会谈 将是坦率的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。本着这种坦率的精神，让我们在一开始就认 识到这样几点：过去一些时候我 们曾是敌人◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。今天我们有巨大的分歧◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。使我们走到一起的， 是我们超越这些分歧的共同利 益◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 在我们讨论我们的分歧时， 我们哪一方都不会在自己的原 则上妥协◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。但是，虽然我 们不能弥合双方之间的鸿沟，我们却能够设法搭一座桥，以便我们能够越过它进行会谈◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 Lesson 29 (E—C) Speech by Former U.S. President Carter at Welcoming Banquet 29 June 1987 Permit me first to thank our Chinese hosts for your xtraordinary arrangments and hospitality.My wife and I, as well as our entire party, are deeply grateful. In the short period of six days, we have gone a longer distance than the Long March. We have acquired a keen sense of the diversity, dynamism, and progress of China under your policies of reform and opening to the outside world. More than eight years have passed since Vice Premier Deng Xiaoping and I joined hands to establish full diplomatic relations between our two great nations. Our hope and vision was to forge a Sino-American relationship which would contribute wo world peace and the welfare of our two peoples. I personally looked upon the forging of firm Sino-American ties as a historically significant experiment. We faced the question in 1978, as to some extent we still do today: Can two nations as different as ours—yours one of the oldest civilizations on earth, mine one of the youngest; yours a socialist state and mine committed to capitalism; yours a developing contry and mine a developed one—can two nations surmount and indeed draw upon these differences to build an unprecedented and distinctive relationship in world affairs? If we are successful, in one great step our two nations will have been able to ease one of the greatst sources of tension in tnternational affairs: that between the developing and developed worlds. We still have a long way to go, and it is still too early to conclude that our experiment will culminate in success, but certainly the results of the first ten years ar promising. Sino-American ties have become extensive, affecting all aspects of our national lives: commerce, culture, education, scientific exchange, and our separate national security policies. (to be continued) 译文： 美国前总统卡特 在欢迎宴会上的讲话 1987 年 6 月 29 日 首先， 请允许我对 中国主人十分出色的安排和款待表示感谢◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我的夫人和我以及全体 随行人员都深为感激◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 在过去短短六天里，我们所走的路程式长征的路程还长◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我们强烈地 感受到你们执行的改 革和对外开放政策给中国带来的多样化、活力和进步◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 自从邓小平副总理的我共同建立我 们两个伟大国家之间的正式外交关系以来，已经八 年多了◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。建立一种有利于世界和平和我 们两国人民幸福的中美关系是我们当时的希望和憧 憬◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我本人把建立牢固的中美关系看作 是具有历史意义的尝试◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我们在 1987 年乃至今天在某种程度上面临的问题仍然是：我们 两国迥然不同，贵国是 地球上最老的文明古国之一，而我国是最年轻的国家之一♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜；贵国是 社会主义国家，而我国致力于资本主义♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜；贵国是发展中国家，而我国是发达国家♧♡♂♀♠♣♥❤☜；像这样的 两个国家是否能够超越这 些差异并利用它在世界事务中建立一种前所未有的、独具特色的 关系？如果我们取得成功， 我们两国就能迈出一大步缓和国际事务中最大的一个造成紧张 的因素， 即发展中世界和发达 世界的关系◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我们面前还有很长的路，现在断言我们的尝试 将会圆满成功还为时过早，但是 头十年肯定是富有成效的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。中美关系现在非常广泛，涉及 我们人民生活的各个方面：商业、 文化、 教育、科学交流，以及我们各自的国家安全政策◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 （待续） Lesson 30(C—E) 增进相互了解 加强友好合作 ——江泽民主席在美国哈佛大学的演讲 （一九九七年十一月一日） （摘录 1） 校长先生， 女士们，先生们： 我感谢陆登庭校长 的邀请，使我有机会在这美好的金秋时节，来到你们这座美国古老 而又现代的学府◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 哈佛 建校三百六十年来，培养出许多杰出的政治家、科学家、文学家和企业家，曾出 过六位美 国总统三十多位诺贝尔获得者◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。先有哈佛，后有美利坚合众国，这说明了哈佛在美 国历史 上的地位◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 哈佛是最早接受中国留学生的美国大学之一◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。中国教育界、科学界、文化界一 直同哈 佛大学保持着学术交流◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。哈介为增进中美两国人民的相互了解作出了有益的贡献◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 相互了解，是发展国与国之间关系的前提◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。惟有相互了解，才能增进信任，加强合作◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 中 美建交以来， 我们两国人民之间的相互交流与了解在逐渐扩大和加深， 但还不够◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 为了推 动 中美关系的发展，中国需要进一步了解美国，美国也需要进一步了解中国◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 …… 中国在自 己发展的长河中，形成了优良的历史文化传统◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。这些传统，随着时代变迁和 社会进步获得扬弃和发展，对今天中国人的价值观念、生活方式和中国的发展道路，具有深 刻的影响◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 这里，我想就以下一些方面读些看法，希望有助于诸位对中国的了解◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 一是团结统一的传 统◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。中华民族是由五十六个民族组成的大家庭◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。从遥远的古代起， 我国各族人民就建立了 紧密的政治经济文化联系， 共同开发了祖国的河山， 两千多年前就形 成了幅员广阔的统 一国家◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。悠久的中华文化，成为维系民族团结和国家统一的牢固纽带◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。团 结统一，深深印 在中国人的民族意识中◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。中国历史上虽曾出现过暂的分裂现象，但民族团结 和国家统一始 科是中华民族历史的主流， 是中国发展进步的重要保障◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。新中国的成立，标 志着中华民族 实现了空前的大团结◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。各民族之间建立了平等、团结、互助的新型关系◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。各民 族人民依法 享有各项权利和自由◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 在少数民族聚居的地方实行了区域自治◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 民族地区的经济 社会获 得不断的发展◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 所有这些， 为巩固国家统一奠定了坚实的政治基础◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 二是独立自主的传统◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我们的先人历来把独立自主视为立国之本◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。中国作为人类文明 发祥地之一，在几千年的历 史进程中，文化传统始终没有中断◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。近代中国虽屡遭列强欺凌， 国势衰败，但经过全民族 的百年抗争，又以巨人的姿态重新站立起来◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。这充分说明，中国人 独立自主的民族精神具 有坚不可摧的力量◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。今天，我们在探索自己的发展道路时，坚持从中 国国情出发，来解决 如何进行经济政治文化建设的问题，而不照搬别国的模式◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。在处理国际 事务中，我们采取 独立自主的立场和政策◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 中国人民珍惜同各国人民的友谊与合作， 也珍惜自己经过长期奋斗 而得来的独立自主权利◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 三是爱好和平的传统◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我国先秦思想家就提出了“亲仁善邻，国之 宝也”的思想，反 映了自古以来中国人民就希望天下太平、同各国人民友好相处◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。今天，专 心致志进行现代化 建设的中国人民， 更需要有一个长期的和平国际环境和良好的周边环境◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我国的对外政策， 是以和平为宗旨的◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我们坚持在和平共处五项原则， 特别是在相互尊重、 平等互利、互不干 涉内政的原则基础上， 同世界各国建立和发展友好合作关系◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 我们绝 不会把自己曾经遭受欺 凌的苦难加之于人◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。中国的发展与进步，不会对任何人构成威胁◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 将来中国富强起来了， 永远不称霸◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 也 中国始终是维护世界和平与地区稳定的坚定力量◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。四 是自强不息的传统◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。我们的先哲通过观察宇宙万物的变动不居，提出了“天行健， 君子以自 强不息”的思想， 成为激励中国人民变革创新、 努力奋斗的精神力量◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 中国古代文 明的发展， 是中华民族艰苦奋斗、 自强不息的结果◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 近百年来， 为了摆脱半殖民地半封建的 历史境遇， 中国人民进行了艰苦卓绝、奋发图强的斗争◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。中国民族革命的先行者孙中山首先 提出“振兴 中华”的口号，他领导的辛亥革命，推翻了在中国延续几千年的君主专制制度◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 在毛泽东思 想指引下， 中国共产党领导中国人民实现了民族独立和人民解放， 并把中国建设 成为初 步繁荣昌盛的社会主义国家◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。今天，在邓小平理论指引下，我国人民坚定不移地实行 改革 开放，在现代化建设中取得举世瞩目的成就◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。中国进入了百年来发展最快最好的历史时 期◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。 译文： Enhanc Mutual Understanding and Build Stronger Ties of Friendship and Cooperation Address by President Jiang Zemin At Harvard University of the United States of America 1 November 1997 (Ecerpt 1) Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen, I wish to thank President Rudenstine for inviting me to this old yet modern institution of the United States in this golden fall. Since its founding some 360 years ago, Harvard has nurtured a great number of outstanding statesmen, scientists, writers and businessmen, including six of the American Presidents and over thirty Nobel Prize winners. The fact that Harvard was founded before the United States of America testfies to its position in the American history. Harvard is among the first American universities to accept Chinese students. The Chinese educational, scientific and cultural communities have all along maintained academic exchanges with this university. Harvard has thus made useful contruibution to the enhanced mutal understanding between the Chinese and American peoples. Mutual understanding is the basis for state-to-state relations. Without it, it would be ipossible for contries to build turst and promote cooperation with one another. Sincethe stablishment of diplomatic ties between China and the United States, the exchanges and mutual understanding between our two peoples have broadened and deepened steadily. However, this is not enough. To promote the development of China-U.S. relation, China needs to know the United States better and vice versa. …… In the prolonged course of its development, China has formed its fine historical and cultural traditions, which have been either developed or sublated with the changes of the times and social progress. These traditions have exerted a profound impact on the values and way of life of the Chinese people today, and on China’s road of advance. Here, I would like to make some observations on the following aspects, which I hope will help you know China better. First, the tradition of solidarity and unity. The Chinese nation is a big family composed of 56 nationalities. Since time immemorial, people of all our nationalities have established close-knit political, economic and cultural links and joined hands in developing the vast land of our country. China became a vast unified country more than 2,000 years ago. The age-old Chinese culture becomes a strong bond for ethnic harmony and national unity. Solidarity and unity are deeply inscribed in the hearts of the Chnese people as part of their national identity.despite occasional divisions, ethnic harony and national unity have remained the main stream in the history of the Chinese nation, and an important guarantee for China’s development and progress. The founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949 marked an unprcedented great unity of the Chinese nation. A new type of relationship of equality, solidarity and mutual assistance among all our nationalities has been established. People of all our nationalities enjoy full rights and freedoms provided for by the law. In places where there is a high concentration of ethnic minorities, reginal autonomy is in practice. These regions have witnessed continued economic and social development. All these have laid a solid political foundation for consolidated national unity. Second, the tradition of maintaining independence. Our ancestors always regarded the spirit of maintaining independence as the foundation of a nation. As one of the cradles of human civilization, China has all along maintained its cultural tradition without letup in its history of several thousand years. In modern times, the frequent bullying and humiliation by imperialist powers once weakened China. Howver, after a hundred years’ struggle of the entire Chinese nation, China has stood up again as a giant. This fully testifies to the indestructible strength of this independent national spirit of the Chinese people. Today, in finding a road of advance suited to us, we will proceed from our won national conditions to address the problems of how to attain economic, political and cultural development without lindly copyng other countries’s models. In handling international affairs, we decide our positions and policies from a independent approach. The Chinese people cherish its friendship and cooperation with other peoples, and they also cherish their right to independence, which they have won through protracted struggles. Third, the peace-loving tradition. Chinese thinkers of the preQin days (over 2,000 years ago) advanced the doctrine “loving people and treating neighbors knidly ard most valuable to a country”. This is a reflection of the aspiration of the Chinese people for a peaceful world where people of all countries live in harmony. Today, the Chinese people who are committed to modernization need more than ver a long-term international environment of peace and a favorable eighboring environment. China’s foreign policy is peace-oriented. We will establish and develop friendly relations and cooperation with all countries in the world on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, especially the principles of nutual respect, equality and mutual benefit and non-interference in each other’s internal affairs. We will never impose upon others the kind of sufferings we ourselves once experienced. A developing andprogressing China does not pose a threat to anyone. China will never seek hegemony even if it grows rich and strong in the future. China is always a staunch force for world peace and regional stability. Fourth, the tradition of constantly striving to strengthen oneself. Through observing the changing nature of the universe and of all things, ancient Chinese philopophers proposed the following doctrine: “Heaven operaties vigorously, and gentlemen exert to strengthen themselves unceasingly.” This ieda has become an important moral force spurring the Chinese people to work hard for change and innovation. The fruits of China’s ancient civilixation were brought about by the tireless efforts and hard work of the Chinese nation. In the past one hundred years or so, the Chinese people waged arduous struggles to lift themselves from their historical plight under semi-colonial and semi-feudal rule. Dr. Sun Yat-sen, China’s forrunner in the democratic revolution, was the first to put forward the slogan of “rejuvenation of China”. He led the Revolution of 1911 to overthrow the autocratic monarchy lasting several millennia in China. Under the guidance of Mao Zedong Thought, the Communist Party of China led the Chinese people in achieving China’s national idependence and people’liberation and in building China into a socialist country with initial prosperity. Today, guided by Deng iaoping Theory, the Chinese peoply are firmly pressing ahead with reform and opening-up pand have achieved remarkable successes in the modernization drive. China has entered a period of its fastest and healthiest growth in this century.
“当地时间2月5日，纽约洋基球场新冠疫苗接种点工作人员接待市民◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。当日，纽约洋基球场作为新冠疫苗大规模接种点启用◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。据悉，洋基球场接种点只面向纽约布朗克斯区居民开放，计划每周接种15000人◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。中新社记者 廖攀 摄担心被针对？联合国秘书长古特雷斯22日也发表了声明，强烈谴责这次袭击，并呼吁刚果（金）当局迅速调查这一令人发指的袭击事件◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。（总台记者 马培敏）（编辑 郑珺之）关键词 :意大利世界粮食计划署我要反馈2020年以来，为促进高校毕业生就业，教育部、人社部等部门出台了一系列政策来为毕业生拓展就业空间，大家也可以及时了解相关政策来寻找对自己未来发展有价值的信息◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。另外，不少城市为吸引高素质人才到当地就业，近年来纷纷推出人才引进政策，在人才落户、薪资待遇、岗位晋升等方面予以优待，大家也可以根据自己的实际需求及时关注相关信息◀ ◁ ☀ ☁ 。